please follow the instruction on the file remembers no plagiarism1- one of your sources should be “Abina and the important men.”  and the other sources that in the fileOutline | EAP 104
Outlines are a map for the writer. They remind the writer about the main points he or she plans to
discuss, the order in which these points should appear, and the examples that the writer will use to
support these points.
Before you plan your essay using an outline, remember the following:
1. An introduction has three parts:
a. The first sentence states the topic and its relevance to the reader
b. The middle sentences build the context or background of the topic
c. The thesis statement is the last sentence in the introduction and it states:
The topic of the essay
The author’s position and opinion on the topic
The main ideas written in the order they appear in the essay
2. Body Paragraphs each have three parts:
a. Topic sentence: which states the first point to be discussed
b. Evidence: which includes specific examples that are correctly cited
c. Explanation: which includes more details about how the evidence supports the point.
The second body paragraph must use transition words in its topic sentence in order to
smoothly connect to the first body paragraph. Here are some examples of topic
sentences with transitions. The underlined words are transition words. The italicized
words are the point in the previous paragraph. The bold words are the new point in
the new paragraph.
 “Not only did the Mongols improve communication across Europe, they also
tolerated all religious beliefs.”
 “Besides using superior weapons, Cortes also took advantage of the hatred that
the local Aztec felt towards their cruel Aztec leaders.”
3. Conclusion: this also has three parts:
a. Restate the thesis statement
b. Summarize the main ideas discussed in the body paragraphs
c. Mention Final thought:
This is when the writer ends with their final thought on the topic. The thought
might be an opinion, position, prediction, or question that the writer wants
his or her readers to think about long after they have finished reading the
Developed by Namubiru & Habib (2016)
Page 1
Example outline:
Essay question: Explain the causes of global warming.
A. Thesis statement: Global warming is caused by man-made pollution, blahblahblah,
and blahblah…….
Man-made pollution is the primary cause of global warming.
A. Greenhouse gas emissions are widely identified by the scientific community to be
“The burning of coal and fossil fuels are the primary releasers of hazardous
greenhouse gases” (Brizee & Tardiff 2013, p. 6).
“The overuse of motorized vehicles also increases greenhouse gas
emissions” (Namubiru 2016, p. 5)
B. Poor disposal of waste, especially the non-decomposable kind, also harms the
Besides man-made pollution, blahblahblah is also another cause of global warming…..
A. Example of blahblahblah……..
A. It is clear that man-made pollution, blahblahblah, and blahblah cause global warming.
B. Summarize the points above
C. Final thought: If nature is to survive human actions, more people must be educated
about the effects their actions have on nature.
Brizee, A. & Tardiff, E. (2013). The Purdue OWL: Sample outlines. Retrieved from
Page 2 of 3
To prepare for your history 125 essay, create an outline of the essay using the outline below. The outline is
due on July 11th at 1AM on Blackboard.
Read the essay question again to make sure you understand what your topic is, your position,
and your main ideas.
For each idea, one of your sources should be “Abina and the important men.” Then you can
use the sources from other articles your professor provides you.
Outline for history 125 essay:
A. Thesis statement:
Body Paragraph 1’s Main idea:
A. Example 1:
Source from “Abina and the important men”
B. Example 2:
Source from “Abina and the important men”
Body Paragraph 2:
A. Main idea:
B. Example 1:
Source from “Abina and the important men”
C. Example 2:
Source from “Abina and the important men”
A. Restated thesis:
B. Summary of ideas
C. Final thought:
Getz, T. R. & Clarke, L. (2016). Abina and the important men: A graphic history. (2nd.ed). New York:
NY, Oxford University Press.
Page 3 of 3
David Livingstone’s Cambridge Speech of December 1857
In December 1856, David Livingstone returned to England after spending fifteen years in
Southern and Central Africa. A year later on the 4th of December, he gave a speech to
students at Cambridge University. Below is that speech, with an introductory paragraph
written by a commentator:
David Livingstone (1813-1873), the Scottish missionary and explorer of Africa, personified
for Britain the higher cause of imperialism. Between 1840 and 1873, Livingstone traversed
nearly a third of Africa, missionizing Christianity, opposing the persistent slave trade, and
recording the geography and ethnographic customs of its peoples. His achievement and his selfeffacing devotion to opening up Africa to commerce and Christianity provided inspiration to a
nineteenth-century British public in search of a moral center to its imperialist policies in Africa.
My object in going into the country south of the desert [sub-Sahara Africa] was to instruct the
natives in a knowledge of Christianity, but many circumstances prevented my living amongst
them more than seven years, amongst which were considerations arising out of the slave system
carried on by the Dutch Boers. I resolved to go into the country beyond, and soon found that, for
the purposes of commerce, it was necessary to have a path to the sea. I might have gone on
instructing the natives in religion, but as civilization and Christianity must go on together, I was
obliged to find a path to the sea, in order that I should not sink to the level of the natives…
Angola is wonderfully fertile, producing every kind of tropical plant in rank luxuriance. Passing
on to the valley of Quango, the stalk of the grass was as thick as a quill, and towered above my
head, although I was mounted on my ox; cotton is produced in great abundance, though merely
woven into common cloth; bananas and pineapples grow in great luxuriance; but the people
having no maritime communication, these advantages are almost lost…
My desire is to open a path to this district, that civilization, commerce, and Christianity
might find their way there. I consider that we made a great mistake, when we carried commerce
into India, in being ashamed of our Christianity; as a matter of common sense and good policy, it
is always best to appear in one’s true character. In traveling through Africa, I might have
imitated certain Portuguese, and have passed for a chief; but I never attempted anything of the
sort, although endeavouring always to keep to the lessons of cleanliness rigidly instilled by my
mother long ago; the consequence was that the natives respected me for that quality, though
remaining dirty themselves…
A prospect is now before us of opening Africa for commerce and the Gospel. Providence
has been preparing the way…
The natives of Central Africa are very desirous of trading, but their only traffic is at present in
slaves, of which the poorer people have an unmitigated horror: it is therefore most desirable to
encourage the former principle, and thus open a way for the consumption of free productions,
and the introduction of Christianity and commerce. By encouraging the native propensity for
trade, the advantages that might be derived in a commercial point of view are incalculable; nor
should we lose sight of the inestimable blessings it is in our power to bestow upon the
unenlightened African, by giving him the light of Christianity. Those two pioneers of civilization
– Christianity and commerce – should ever be inseparable; and Englishmen should be warned by
the fruits of neglecting that principle as exemplified in the result of the management of Indian
affairs. By trading with Africa, also, we should at length be independent of slave-labour, and
thus discountenance practices so obnoxious to every Englishman.
Though the natives are not absolutely anxious to receive the Gospel, they are open to
Christian influences. Among the Bechuanas [a group in Central Africa] the Gospel was well
received. These people think it a crime to shed a tear, but I have seen some of them weep at the
recollection of their sins when God had opened their hearts to Christianity and repentance. It is
true that missionaries have difficulties to encounter; but what great enterprise was ever
accomplished without difficulty? It is deplorable to think that one of the noblest of our
missionary societies, the Church Missionary Society, is compelled to send to Germany for
missionaries, whilst other societies are amply supplied. Let this stain be wiped off. – The sort of
men who are wanted for missionaries are such as I see before me; men of education, standing,
enterprise, zeal, and piety. It is a mistake to suppose that any one, as long as he is pious, will do
for this office. Pioneers in every thing should be the ablest and best qualified men, not those of
small ability and education. This remark especially applies to the first teachers of Christian truth
in regions which may never have before been blest with the name and Gospel of Jesus Christ. In
the early ages the monasteries were the schools of Europe, and the monks were not ashamed to
hold the plough. The missionaries now take the place of those noble men, and we should not
hesitate to give up the small luxuries of life in order to carry knowledge and truth to them that
are in darkness. I hope that many of those whom I now address will embrace that honourable
career. Education has been given us from above for the purpose of bringing to the benighted the
knowledge of a Saviour. If you knew the satisfaction of performing such a duty, as well as the
gratitude to God which the missionary must always feel, in being chosen for so noble, so sacred
a calling, you would have no hesitation in embracing it.
For my own part, I have never ceased to rejoice that God has appointed me to such an
office. People talk of the sacrifice I have made in spending so much of my life in Africa. Can
that be called a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our
God, which we can never repay?- Is that a sacrifice which brings its own blest reward in
healthful activity, the consciousness of doing good, peace of mind, and a bright hope of a
glorious destiny hereafter? – Away with the word in such a view, and with such a thought! It is
emphatically no sacrifice. Say rather it is a privilege. Anxiety, sickness, suffering, or danger,
now and then, with a foregoing of the common conveniences and charities of this life, may make
us pause, and cause the spirit to waver, and the soul to sink, but let this only be for a moment. All
these are nothing when compared with the glory which shall hereafter be revealed in, and for, us.
I never made a sacrifice. Of this we ought not to talk, when we remember the great sacrifice
which HE made who left His Father’s throne on high to give Himself for us.

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