Question 1:The United States operates under a unique system of federalism in which power, authority, and responsibility are divided or shared between the federal government and the state, tribal, and local governments. This decentralized or fragmented system helps the government remain responsive at the grass-roots level and avoid totalitarianism, but also contributes to inherent conflicts between and among federal, state, and local laws. One reason that conflicts occur is because the Constitution is somewhat vague about how the powers of the federal, state, and local governments are divided or shared. Another reason is because the interests and needs of federal, state, and local governments related to policy areas, such as education and healthcare, often overlap. For this Discussion, you explore federalism and how it sometimes contributes to conflicts between and among federal, state, and local laws. Later in the week, you explore how such conflicts are resolved. To prepare for this Discussion:Review the online article, “ Federalism Checks the Power of the Central Government.” Pay particular attention to the definition of federalism and the overlap between federal and state interests and powers.Review the article, “Federalism and Environmental Policy: The Case of Solid Waste Management” and the course media “The Courts–Federal, State, and Local Conflicts.” Think about how federalism might contribute to conflicts between and among federal, state, and local laws.Review the article, “Federalism: How the Principle Works on State and Local Levels.” Consider how federalism might contribute to conflicts between state and local laws.Select a policy area (e.g. – education, healthcare, drug use, immigration, the environment, etc.) to use for this assignment.Using the Internet and/or the Walden Library, find an example in which federalism contributed to a conflict between federal and state laws or between state and local laws related to the policy area you selected.With these thoughts in mind:Post by Day 4 a brief description of the policy area you selected. Then explain how federalism contributed to a conflict between federal and state laws or state and local laws related to the policy area you selected. Be specific.Question 2:One of the primary areas of focus for research and evaluation in public and nonprofit sectors is exploring the relationship between variables. For example, as a public administrator, you might be interested in determining the effectiveness of a public program. To do this, you would explore the relationship between the program and its intended outcome. Consider a program intended to reduce homelessness. You would need to reduce the number or percentage of citizens who lack suitable housing in order to be considered successful. Sometimes, you might need to consider additional variables in assessing the success of the homelessness program. In this case, measures of association and inferential statistics can help you sort out these types of relationships.There are many types of inferential statistics (e.g., t-tests for independent samples means, t-tests for proportions, analysis of variance, etc.) and many types of measures of association (e.g., Lambda, Gamma, and Pearson’s r, etc.). A skilled researcher must have the ability to select the most appropriate statistic for a given situation. As noted in your course text, selecting the appropriate statistic is based on the purpose of the research, the measurement level of the variables, the measure’s sensitivity, and the researcher’s familiarity with the statistic. Therefore, there is no “perfect” statistic. Instead, you must determine the “most appropriate” statistic for your research.To prepare for this Discussion, review Chapters 13 and 15 in your course text, paying particular attention to the selection and use of inferential statistics and measures of association. Review the four criteria for selecting the best measure, keeping in mind the purpose for which you might use measures of association. Finally, think about which inferential statistics and measures of association you might use in United Way to answer your research question. Use the four criteria to help you make a selection.Post by Day 4 a description of the inferential statistics and measures of association that would be most appropriate for United Way and answer your research question. Explain how you would use them, and justify why these statistics and measures are most appropriate for United WayReadingsJohnson, G. (2014). Research methods for public administrators (3rd ed.). Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.Chapter 14, “Data Analysis: Exploring Relationships” (pp. 198–215)Chapter 16, “Data Analysis Using Inferential Statistics” (pp. 230–243)Trochim, W. M. K. (2006, October 20). Inferential statistics. Retrieved fromhttp://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statinf.phpNote: Read the first six paragraphs only.Each question 200-300 words APA citation.
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