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2.1 Categorize process analysis techniques which are utilized at the various phases of process improvement.
2.2 Explain how baselining and benchmarking are vital to the change process
2.3 Identify three categories of process improvements that may be applied to organizations
2.4 Examine the benefit and importance of accurately documenting the As-Is Process.
2.5 Create an As-Is Process flowchart.
Reference the article according to APA guidelines.Human Resource Management International Digest
The tools and techniques of effective change management: Why some reformers succeed while others
M.S. Rao
Article information:
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M.S. Rao , (2015),”The tools and techniques of effective change management”, Human Resource Management International
Digest, Vol. 23 Iss 1 pp. 35 – 37
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The tools and techniques of effective
change management
Why some reformers succeed while others fail
M.S. Rao
Downloaded by University Library At 12:15 24 July 2016 (PT)
M.S. Rao is based at
MSR Leadership
Consultants India.
“A change leader looks for change, knows how to find the right changes and knows how
to make them effective both outside the organization and inside it”, said management guru
Peter F Drucker. Alan Mulally, of Ford; Jack Welch, of General Electric; Carlos Ghosn, of
Renault; and Lou Gerstner of IBM, are examples of leaders who succeeded in overcoming
obstacles and in turning round their organizations.
Individuals, like organizations, undergo change. The three main stages for humans are birth,
growth and death. Organizations, in contrast, experience birth, growth, transformation, decline
and death. Good leaders must intervene before their organization reaches the stage of decline.
Change management involves effecting reform in a systematic, structured and
sequential manner to transform the organization from uncertainty to certainty when
volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity are around. Change management calls
for value-based, principle-centered leadership to achieve organizational transformation
effectively. In a nutshell, it is about managing change effectively, with all the tools
available, without inviting resistance.
Is change essential?
People change with changing times and circumstances and new technologies that affect their
personal, professional and social lives. It is almost impossible to avoid change. Organizations
must similarly change with the changing times, circumstances and technologies.
Customer demands, tastes and preferences change rapidly. Creativity and innovation help
companies to stand out from the pack and beat the competition. Change is therefore
essential for growth.
Change is different from growth. Change may take place overnight. Growth, however, is
gradual. Change could be for better or worse, while growth is usually for the better. Growth
means stepping into known areas, whereas change means stepping from a known to an
unknown area. Growth often demands hard work, whereas change can happen without this.
Why do people resist change?
Employees often react negatively to a change in their work location, the nature of their work
or the policies and procedures governing their role. The reasons include employees not
having the competencies and qualifications needed for their current or new role, fearing
that their workload will increase, suspecting the motives of the organization that is requiring
DOI 10.1108/HRMID-12-2014-0163
VOL. 23 NO. 1 2015, pp. 35-37, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 0967-0734 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL DIGEST
them to change and suspecting that they will lose out financially by the change or see their
status reduced. These reactions can be reduced by proper training, trust-building
measures and constant reassurance.
Change leadership
Many people assume that the status quo is good. They fear that change will involve
uncertainty and complexity. Change leaders need to build confidence about the merits of
change and the need to shed what is not good for the organization.
Change leadership is the process of neutralizing the anti-change forces and persuading
the people to fall in line for the prosperity of the organization and its people.
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There are broadly three categories of people – actors, spectators and speed-breakers.
Actors have a positive attitude with lots of energy to implement the plans of the change leaders.
Spectators are undecided about the change. They have reservations, apprehensions and
queries. Speed-breakers constantly protest about change. Most people fall within the category
of spectators. Change leaders need to persuade the spectators of the benefits of change and
ensure that the speed-breakers do not scuttle the change process. Change leaders must be
patient, tactful and tough to handle speed-breakers.
Leaders must clear up any confusion through clear communication. They must appreciate
the reasons for employees’ feelings and fears and move accordingly. They must clearly
state the vision and cultivate hope. They must know and cater to what motivates their
people. They should be with the people throughout the change process to clear up their
queries, allay their fears and build trust and confidence.
Change leaders must provide passion and a strong sense of purpose about change. They
must share their power. They must share the vision with their employees so that they feel
that they are an integral part of the change process.
Leadership guru John Kotter advised: “Do not declare victory too soon”. Anything can
happen while change is being implemented and consolidated. For instance, new
bottlenecks may crop up and fresh resistance may surface. The speed-breakers are
constantly looking out for ways to upset the change process. It is essential not to
underestimate their might.
Change leaders must focus on both the internal and external environment. The external
environment could include, for example, political, economic, social and technological
factors. The internal environment most often concerns business strategy, planning and the
use of resources. The internal environment is usually easier to deal with than the external.
Characteristics of change leaders
Change requires flexible leaders who can adapt to various situations, styles and people, to
manage the change successfully. As leadership begins and ends with example, change
leaders must “walk the talk”. They must have a strong vision and be clear where they are
taking their people. They must possess strong communication skills to get across the
Change leaders need to build confidence about the merits of
change and the need to shed what is not good for the
VOL. 23 NO. 1 2015
Change leaders must provide passion and a strong sense of
purpose about change.
Downloaded by University Library At 12:15 24 July 2016 (PT)
message about change and to clear any apprehensions. They must demonstrate
fire-fighting and trouble-shooting skills during the process of change. They must empower
and motivate others and make change an integral part of the organizational culture. They
must have a “can do” attitude and be highly focused on doing the right things, right. They
must have charisma and good listening skills. They must be confident and competent.
They must have sound judgment based on the past successes and failures and
intuition. They must learn to prioritize tasks and show and celebrate small successes.
They must be risk-takers and learn to overcome bureaucratic bottlenecks during the
process of change. They must create common ground where people can focus on
commonalities rather than differences. They must have a burning desire to effect the
change. They must have good analytical and problem-solving skills and be able to see
the big picture. Above all, change leaders must be passionate in their endeavors to
effect change smoothly and successfully.
The only constants in the corporate world are competition and change. Every change is
made for a reason. Every change should be followed through only when the positives
outweigh the negatives. Change requires a new mindset, tool-set and skill-set.
Change management,
Organizational development
For the cynic, change can be stressful and painful. For the optimist, it can be beneficial and
helpful. Mind-set, therefore, plays an important part in successful change. Change is also,
probably, unavoidable. As the nineteenth-century British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli
once said: “Change is inevitable in a progressive society. Change is constant”. His
modern-day successors would undoubtedly agree.
Professor M.S. Rao, the founder of MSR Leadership Consultants, India, has 33 years of
experience in executive coaching and leadership development. He is the author of 30
books – including the award-winning 21 Success Sutras for Leaders – and more than 250
papers and articles. His areas of interest include executive education, coaching and
leadership. Professor Rao serves as an advisor to, and board member of, international
organizations, including Global Leadership Awards, Malaysia. His vision is to build one million
students as global leaders by 2030. Blogs:; http://professormsrao.;; Amazon URL:
M.-S.-Rao/e/B00MB63BKM. M.S. Rao can be contacted at:
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