Review the paired course (GP210, BA101, or BA150) or any one of the courses you are taking this term. Using the SQ3R techniques described in the lecture, find a reading assignment either in Week 4 or Week 5.After reading the material from your paired course using the SQ3R method, explain how the SQ3R technique could make the materials easier to absorb.SQ3R
This week we are developing a study technique. Reading
textbooks, or in some cases Grantham University lectures, is a
very passive activity. In order to not just read, but to understand
the material and how it applies to the week’s topic a more
interactive learning activity should be developed. The technique
described below is just one example of how to read textbooks,
Grantham’s course lectures, or any other material involved in
your educational pursuits. Please be aware that this is just one
technique and may or may not work for you, but you should
develop a routine for reading that involves learning of the
material read. This technique is not applicable to everything you
read, as it was designed by Francis Robinson at Ohio State
University to help students read textbooks. Textbooks are
traditional laid out in a predictable format with a title,
introduction, headings, subheadings, and a conclusion.
Survey, Question, Read, Recall, Review (SQ3R)
Here is how you as a reader can apply each step of this
The student surveys the reading assignment, note any headings,
subheadings, introductory, and closing paragraphs. Also take a
look at any questions posed, either at the end of the chapter or
from the assignment that follows the reading. In Grantham
courses lectures or course links are often followed by Discussion
Questions and/or Assignments. Review those sections prior to
moving on to the next step.
Look for any boldfaced topic or headings and rephrase those in
your mind as questions. For example a History textbook may
have a chapter titled From Bosnia to Baghdad. What type of
questions might be developed prior to reading the content? There
is no right or wrong answer to this exercise. If totally unfamiliar
with the topic I might ask; what do the two totally geographic
locations have in common? How much time was there between
the various conflicts? Or, how did previous wars or the resolution
of them influence the Bosnia and Baghdad?
Now you are ready to read. Pay close attention to how the
material is organized and try to understand the main points made
by the author. If the reading is full of complicated
detailed information try taking notes in a Mind Map format. You
just jot down different ideas and draw lines to a central theme. If
the example cited above the central theme is From Bosnia to
Baghdad. Other information may be represented as listed below:
By now you should have developed some understanding of the
material. Try to reflect in your mind the basic information
provided by the author and the questions you asked before
reading. Did the reading answer the questions? If not, a
rereading might help.
Now is the time to organize the newly acquired information.
Review your notes, and structure them so that the important
information is separated from the information that may be
irrelevant. Remember what you have been asked to respond to in
the upcoming discussion question or assignment. By now you
should have enough information to move forward.
The SQ3R technique is useful in absorbing information from
textbooks and other documents found in Grantham courses. Once
you have practiced this technique reading becomes more
interesting and relevant, and course assignments are less
Food, Soil, and Pest Management
In 2004, the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization
(FAO) estimated that about 852 million people lacked access to
the food needed for healthy, productive lives. The availability of
food and one’s access to it is a critical concept in today’s society.
Food security is the condition where all or most of the
population of a country have daily access to enough food for
healthy and active lives. Currently enough food is produced to
meet the nutritional needs of the whole planet, but some people
suffer from food insecurity, living without easy access to food
on a daily basis. Food insecurity may lead to undernutrition
(hunger), a serious under-consumption of calories that leaves
the body weakened and susceptible to disease. Most
undernourished individuals live in low-income, less-developed
countries. People might receive enough calories in their diets but
still be malnourished because they do not receive enough
essential nutrients like proteins, vitamin A, iodine, or iron. Adults
suffering from malnutrition are more susceptible to disease and
have less strength to function productively than those who are
well-fed. The most comment vitamins lacking are vitamin A
(causes blindness), iron (causes anemia), and iodine (can affect
function of thyroid gland). On the other hand, overnutrition can
be an issue in developed countries. Overnutrition occurs when
food energy intake is greater than energy use. Individuals that
are underfed or overfed suffer from similar health problems, such
as lower life expectancy, lower productivity, and life quality.
Food Production
Food is produced in three systems: croplands, rangelands, and
fisheries. Croplands produce most of the grains used in food
systems, rangelands/feedlots produce all the meat and meat
products, and fisheries/aquaculture produce all the fish
consumed. Only a few species of mammals and fish produce most
of the meat consumed in the world. This limitation to a few
species makes food production vulnerable because a limited
numbers of species harvested increases the chance disease,
environmental degradation, or climate change could harm food
Industrialized crop production: Uses heavy equipment, large
amounts of financial capital, fossil fuels, and inorganic fertilizers
to produce monocultures (single crops). Now produces 80% of
the world’s food
Plantation agriculture: Type of industrialized production used
in less-developed countries and grows cash crops (e.g. bananas,
coffee, sugar cane) for export to more – developed countries.
Traditional subsistence agriculture: Use of human and animal
labor to produce enough crops for the family to survive.
Sometimes enough food is produced to sell or store in reserve.
Traditional intensive agriculture: Similar to traditional
subsistence agriculture but usually the farmer is able to produce
enough food to feed family and sell extra for income.
Slash-and-burn agriculture: Clearing and burning small plots
in tropical forests and growing a variety of crops until the soil is
completely depleted of nutrients. Usually plots last for a few
years, and then the farmer slashes and burns a new nutrientdense plot.
Food production has been increased in the 20th and 21st centuries
with crossbreeding and genetically engineered crops and
livestock. Crossbreeding allows farmers to develop genetically
improved varieties that can withstand disease and grow faster.
Genetic engineering sped up the process of cross breeding and
also changed segments of the DNA to produce desirable traits or
inserted genes from other species into the species of interest.
Meat and fish/shellfish production has increased as more
countries increase their middle class populations, increasing the
demands for meat products. This has caused a shift towards
breeding animals that grow faster and bigger, such as chickens,
or “farming” (aquaculture) fish species to increase the size of
popular fish, such as salmon.
Environmental Problems and Food
Food production is the human activity with the greatest harmful
effects on the environment. Soil erosion is the movement of
topsoil from one place to another through wind and water actions.
Though it occurs naturally, soil erosion is more frequent in areas
of human activity where trees and grasses have been removed
for agricultural purposes, exposing the top soil to wind or water.
When the topsoil is completely devoid of nutrients and
productivity is below 10% desertification occurs, though this
rarely causes a desert to form, usually only stopping plant
production. In dry climates, continual water irrigation leads to a
buildup of salt crystals in the top soil, causing salinization,
stunting crop growth and decreasing crop yields.
Food production leads to a loss of biodiversity because forests
and grasslands are usually plowed up and replaced with
croplands. Genetically modified food, especially grain crops, if
released into the wild could reduce the natural genetic
biodiversity of the wild strains, reduce the gene pool, and wipe
out wild species. Industrial livestock production is also harmful to
the environment, being one of the greatest consumers of water
and also uses large quantities of fossil fuel energy. Livestock
production generates about 18% of the world’s greenhouse
gases. In aquaculture, fish are usually feed fish meal or fish oil,
which can cause an increase of contamination of toxins in fish
that humans eat.
Sustainable Pest Control
Pesticides are chemicals that have been developed to control
organisms that are undesirable including insects, weeds, and
rodents. There are advantages to modern synthetic pesticides:
increase food supplies by decreasing food loss, increase profits
for farmers, and they save humans from insect-transmitted
diseases. There are also disadvantages to these pesticides:
accelerate development of genetic resistance, they don’t remain
on the plant and can pollute the environment, and some
pesticides can harm wildlife and humans.
Alternatives to pesticides can be used, such as fooling the pest by
rotating crops in the plot, bringing in natural enemies, and
implanting genetic resistance to pests. There are also many laws
and treaties about which type of chemical pesticides can be used
to protect the environment and human health. Integrated pest
management is a sustainable approach to pest control that uses
cultivation, biological, and chemical tools such as crop rotation,
natural pest predators, and plant-based insecticides.
Governments have some ability to influence food production by
controlling prices and providing subsidies to farmers. Controlling
prices and keeping them low keeps consumers happy and
providing subsidies to farmers helps to financially secure the
farmer and keep them producing goods. On an individual level,
people can reduce food waste, the amount of food that is thrown
away without being consumed, and buy locally, keeping their
local farmers in the business of food production.
Soil erosion can be stopped if farmers understand and practice
soil conservation, which is a method to reduce soil erosion and
restore soil fertility, usually done by keeping the land constantly
covered by vegetation. Organic fertilizers, from plant and animal
materials, helps restore soil fertility by returning needed nutrients
to the top soil. Organic agriculture, the growing of food stuffs
without pesticides, inorganic fertilizers, or genetically engineered
seeds, is more sustainable by decreasing carbon dioxide
emissions, reducing top soil erosion, and increasing top soil
fertility. Organic agriculture ideas can also be used in raising
livestock and aquaculture. Livestock raised on grasslands are less
environmentally destructive than feedlots and shifting consumer
preference from grain-inefficient livestock, such as beef, to grainefficient animals like chicken and fish.

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