Stereotypes of Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Orientation
Consider the
meanings and connotations of terms like “hoodlum,” “beaner,” “towel-head,” and
“fag.” These terms are often used with negative undertones and are related to
the racial and ethnic, and sexual minority stereotypes that exist in society.
Although these terms, independent of other factors, are relatively harmless,
the stereotypes they imply may lead to crimes against racial, ethnic, and
sexual orientation minorities.
For example, in
the cases discussed in the Weekly Introduction, police officers assumed Diallo
and Bell to be “suspicious” and armed. These assumptions then led officers to
shoot and kill both Diallo and Bell. In the public outcry that surrounded both
of these incidents, many argued that Diallo and Bell were victims because of
racial stereotypes and assumptions made on the basis of skin color.
For this
Discussion, you select a current news story from print or media(no more than 5
years old) that involves a crime committed against an individual or group
related to racial and ethnic, and/or sexual orientation stereotypes.
Post by Day 4 a description of the news story you
selected. Then explain how racial or ethnic stereotypes may have contributed to
the victimization. Finally, explain at least one strategy that might reduce
stereotypes contributing to the victimization of racial and ethnic minorities.
Support your response with references to the literature and the Learning
One and a half page with
at least two reference….
It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the
assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT
presenting an explanation from the readings.
To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for
this assignments 1) look at the page limits 2) review and follow APA rules
3) create SUBHEADINGS to identify the key sections you are presenting and
4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.

Course Text: Investigating
Difference: Human and Cultural Relations in Criminal Justice

Chapter 2,
“Conceptualizing Difference”
Chapter 3, “Privilege
and the Construction of Crime”
Chapter 5, “Social
Class, Crime, and Justice”
Chapter 18, “Fairness
in the Courts: Investigating and Addressing Race, Ethnic, and Gender

Article: Black,
P. J., & Kari, C. J. (2010). Policing diverse communities: Do gender
and minority status make a difference? Journal of Ethnicity in
Criminal Justice, 8(3), 216–229.
Herek, G. M. (2009). Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among
sexual minority adults in the United States: Prevalence estimates from a
national probability sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,
24(1), 54–74. 
     Article: Lieberman,
M. (2010). Hate crime laws: Punishment to fit the crime. Dissent
(00123846), 57(3), 81–84. 
Stacey, M., Carbone-López, K., & Rosenfeld, R. (2011). Demographic
change and ethnically motivated crime: The impact of immigration on
anti-Hispanic hate crime in the United States. Journal of Contemporary
Criminal Justice, 27(3), 278–298. 

Article: Ellis,
L., & Say, L. (2011). Hate crime regulation and challenges. Georgetown
Journal of Gender & the Law, 12(3), 367–383.
Article: Love,
E. (2009). Confronting Islamophobia in the United States: Framing civil
rights activism among Middle Eastern Americans. Patterns of Prejudice,
43(3/4), 401–425.
Article: Miller,
L. L. (2010). The invisible black victim: How American Federalism
perpetuates racial inequality in criminal justice. Law & Society
Review, 44, 805–842.
Saucier, D. A., Brown, T. L., Mitchell, R. C., & Cawman, A. J. (2006).
Effects of victims’ characteristics on attitudes toward hate crimes. Journal
of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 890–909.
Zaykowski, H. (2010). Racial disparities in hate crime reporting. Violence
and Victims, 25(3), 378–394.
Web Article: Strauss,
V. (2011). Anti-bullying legislation attacked for allowing bullying.
Retrieved from
Web Article: Transgender
Nation. (1998). GLOV LGBT module handout on transgendered persons for DC
Metropolitan Police Department, DC Fire Department, & Emergency
Medical Services diversity sensitivity training program. Retrieved from

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