i will post everything that is needed. i need the study guide to be completed until chapter 8 only. thanksApplied Ecology Test Review
1. Writing Scientific Papers
Short Answer
1. What reasoning would you give for the fact that quoting is not really done in scientific papers? Be
sure to justify your reasoning completely.
2. You have had to use a website to write your scientific paper. When is this correct and when is it
incorrect? Be complete.
3. When and why do you cite information in a scientific paper? Give an example of a sentence that
should ALWAYS be cited (mentioned in lecture).
Multiple Choice
1. Which of the following is in the correct format for an in-text citation?
a. (Chuck et. al 1990)
b. (Chuck, Munchy and Fallon 1990)
c. (Chuck et al., 1990)
d. (Chuck et al 1990)
2. Which of the following is in the correct format for a Literature Cited section entry?
a. Chuck et al. 1990. What is up with species? Conservation Biology. 68(1): 45-92.
b. Chuck et. al. 1990. What is up with species? Conservation Biology. 68(1): 45-92.
c. Peter Chuck, Jane Munchy and Albert Fallon 1990. What is up with species? Conservation
Biology. 68(1): 45-92.
d. Chuck, Peter, Jane Munchy and Albert Fallon 1990. What is up with species? Conservation
Biology. 68(1): 45-92.
3. Which of the following is written last?
a. Abstract
b. Conclusion
c. Introduction
d. Literature Cited
4. Which of the following is the most important?
a. Write a paper.
b. Ask for help.
c. Go to the Writing Center.
d. Write the paper at the last minute so everything is fresh in your mind.
5. When do you use et al. in a scientific paper?
a. Only when there are two authors.
b. When there are two authors from the same institution.
c. When there are four authors but not for more than four.
d. When there are more than two authors.
6. What is the correct sentence style and structure for writing scientific papers?
a. Short sentences, written in the past tense and without using personal pronouns.
b. Long sentences, written in the past tense and without using personal pronouns.
c. Short sentences, written in the present and future tenses and without using personal pronouns.
d. Short sentences, written in the present and future tenses and with the use personal pronouns.
2. Climate Change
Short Answer
1. Describe two ways carbon dioxide is measured which we talked about in class. Do you think one is
more reliable than the other? Explain your thinking.
2. Why is the increase of carbon dioxide a problem for the Earth? Explain your reasoning completely.
3. List and describe three problems associated with global warming. Which do you think is the most
damaging to the Earth? Why?
4. The carbon dioxide concentration on Earth is increasing. Describe four ways in which carbon dioxide
is released into the atmosphere.
5. How will future increases in carbon dioxide and temperature effect crops and wild animals and plants?
6. What are five ways in which carbon dioxide levels could be reduced?
Multiple Choice
1. Green plants combine hydrogen ions with carbon dioxide in order to form
a. water.
b. glucose.
c. chlorophyll.
d. carbon.
2. Which of the following are greenhouse gases?
a. H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3
b. CO2
c. N2
d. H2O, CH4, O2
3. Which of the following is not a method of reducing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere?
a. Reduce burning of fossil fuel by using alternative fuels.
b. Increase biomass absorption of CO2 by planting more trees and reduce deforestation.
c. Fertilize the growth of algae in the ocean.
d. Wait and see if increased CO2 leads to faster photosynthesis.
e. All of these are ways in which carbon dioxide levels can be reduced.
4. Research has shown that plants are able to adapt to changing global temperatures. Which of the
following is one such adaptation shown in plants?
a. Plants keep their genetic material the same.
b. Plants are able to change their genetic material.
c. Plants are able to make much more efficient use of nitrogen and water.
d. Plants are not able to make much more efficient use of nitrogen and water.
e. Actually plants are able to do both B and C.
5. Animals also respond to climate change. Which of the following is not an example of individual
animal or population response to changing global climate?
a. They can go extinct.
b. They can immigrate to a much more amenable climate.
c. They can adapt to changing local conditions.
d. They can just stay the same. Climate change does not matter anyway.
6. There was an enormous period of climate change in the _______________ epoch.
a. Carboniferous
b. Pleistocene
c. Devonian
d. Jurassic
7. A graph showing carbon dioxide increase has a jagged appearance. What causes these ups and downs
in the carbon dioxide concentration?
a. More people are driving cars.
b. During the summer, people walk more places and drive less.
c. It fluctuates like that because of incorrect measuring.
d. It is the change in seasons and the use of carbon dioxide by plants in temperate zones
that causes the fluctuations in the graph.
8. Which of the following is an extreme example of climate change?
a. Increasing levels of ice that help the Isle Royale wolves survive.
b. Decreasing levels of ice that are keeping the Isle Royale wolves from surviving.
c. Increasing levels of ice in summer in the Arctic.
d. Increasing levels of ice in the Antarctic.
9. A 10-meter increase in sea level will flood what percent of the US?
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 20%
d. 25%
10. During the Pleistocene climate change event, the temperature changed 7oC in ___ years.
a. 5
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75
3. Energy and Nutrient Cycling
Short Answer.
1. State the two laws of thermodynamics we talked about.
2. How long did it take for oxygen levels to reach current levels on Earth? Explain the causes of this
increase.
3. We have seen that one hectare of arable land has to be able to support four people at the current world
population. Do you think this is feasible? Explain your answer completely.
4. Describe five ways crop yield can be increased.
5. Summarize the amount of energy from the Sun that strikes the Earth. Be sure to account for 100% of
the Sun’s energy. How much energy is reflected and why? How much of the Sun’s energy that strikes
the Earth’s atmosphere comes through to provide for plants?
6. Choose one of the biogeochemical cycles we discussed and explain it in detail. Be sure to include a
diagram of the cycle.
7. Label each of these systems as high input systems (H) or low input systems (L) for food energy
production.
______ cattle in English pastures
______ shifting cultivation
______ open fields in medieval England
______ wheat production in Canada
______ commercial fishing
______ wheat production in the UK
______ migratory pastoralists
______ fields in Southern India
Multiple Choice.
1. Ultimately all of the energy available to organisms on Earth comes from
a. water.
b. wind.
c. the Sun.
d. waves.
2. Which of the following ecosystems has the highest net primary productivity?
a. oceans
b. grassland
c. temperate forests
d. tropical wet forest
3. Is all of the Sun’s energy absorbed and used by plants?
a. yes
b. no
c. In some places.
d. Only in summer.
4. How much energy per hectare can these food production systems produce?
a. low; 0.004 – 8
b. high; 0.004 – 8
c. low; 5 – 106
d. high; 90 – 106
5. The carbon cycle is tied to ___________ in ecosystems.
a. water
b. nitrogen
c. hydrogen
d. energy
6. Which of the following is an active reservoir for carbon and an active carbon exchange with
atmosphere?
a. streams
b. oceans
c. asphalt
d. glass
7. Long term fluctuations of carbon are tied to which of the following in ecosystems?
a. Photosynthesis/respiration patterns in ecosystems.
b. The removal of fossil fuels from underground deposits.
c. Carbon dioxide in the environment.
d. Acidification of the oceans.
8. Which of the following enzymes is active in bacteria that can fix nitrogen?
a. nitrogenase
b. proteinase
c. nextiase
d. lipase
9. Which of the following elements is moved about the ecosystem in the hydrologic cycle?
a. nitrogen
b. carbon
c. sulfur
d. phosphorous
10. Acid precipitation causes decreases in pH. Acid levels that will eliminate most species begin at:
a. 4.5 – 5.0
b. 5.0 – 6.0
c. 6.5 – 7.0
d. 7.5 – 8.0
4. The Water Cycle
Short Answer.
1. What strategies do plants use to maintain water balance in their tissues?
2. Describe three ways in which plants adapt to drought.
3. Describe four ways in which water can be used more efficiently by farmers when they plant crops.
4. Describe two negative effects of reservoir construction. Are there any positive effects of building
reservoirs beyond the capture of water for human use?
5. It has been proposed that moving icebergs from the poles to arid areas of the world could provide a
great deal of fresh water. Describe why this fact is true and how you would engineer such a feat if you
were hired by the government of Mauritania to do so.
6. Describe two remedies for areas where the soil has increased in salinity that could allow farmers living
there to grow crops.
7. Could cutting down tropical forests really result in less rainfall? How much less? Why would the
amount of rainfall decrease?
8. Do you think that it is feasible to make clean water available to 100% of the populations on the Earth?
Explain why or why not. COMPLETELY.
Multiple Choice
1. Deforestation of temperate deciduous forest and replacement with grass and shrubs reduces
evapotranspiration by 10-40%. This is not a consequence of
a. less evaporative surface.
b. increased reflectance.
c. lower productivity.
d. more wind turbulence.
2. Porous water-saturated layers of underground rock are known as
a. aquifers.
b. recharge areas.
c. watersheds.
d. runoffs.
3. Overuse of groundwater can lead to
a. salt water intrusion into aquifers.
b. subsidence of overlaying rock layers.
c. depletion of aquifers before they can recharge.
d. All of the above are correct.
4. Which of the following is an accurate description of water?
a. liquid water changes temperature very quickly
b. water is an important solvent
c. water contracts when it freezes
d. water filters all types of light at depths of 1 meter
5. From 1980 to 1994 many fewer people on the planet had safe drinking water. How many?
a. 700 million
b. 70 thousand
c. 7000
d. 700 billion
6. It is most economically and environmentally best to focus water resource management on
a. increasing the water supply.
b. controlling the extreme use of water from aquifers.
c. increasing the efficiency of the way we use water on a daily basis.
d. developing desalination plants.
7. Which of the following is a negative consequence of pumping groundwater?
a. Land tends to rise up.
b. Estuaries can have major changes in salinity.
c. The soil surface can become less saline.
d. Ground water flow into streams is increased.
8. Animals can adapt to drought quickly by
a. migrating to wetter areas.
b. reducing their water requirements.
c. evolving
d. Both a and b are correct.
e. Both b and c are correct.
9. An adequate supply of water is about __________________ per person per day.
a. 13 liters
b. 13 gallons
c. 150 liters
d. 150 gallons
10. Sustainable water use involves
a. making good decisions on how water is used.
b. preserving the ecological integrity of water supply systems.
c. efficient use of water.
d. All of these answers are correct.
11. The CWA made it unlawful to
a. dump waste into water.
b. dump waste into water from a non-point source.
c. discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was
obtained.
d. discharge any pollutant into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained.
12. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 was the first major U.S. law to
a. address ocean pollution.
b. address river pollution.
c. address stream pollution.
d. address water pollution.
13. Which of the following correctly labels this diagram of the water cycle?
a. A = evaporation
B = condensation
C = precipitation
D = transpiration
b. A = transpiration
B = evaporation
C = condensation
D = precipitation
c. A = condensation
B = precipitation
C = transpiration
D = evaporation
d. A = transpiration
B = precipitation
C = evaporation
D = condensation
14. Which of the following is an important way to increase efficiency of water use by crops?
a. Plant bigger crops that can tolerate drought.
b. Have more chaff and less grain.
c. Genetically engineer the plants to use more water.
d. Use drip irrigation and plastic sheeting to conserve water.
15. The basis of the CWA was enacted in _________ and was called the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act, but the Act was significantly reorganized and expanded in _________.
a. 1999, 2012
b. 1948, 1972
c. 1948, 1990
d. 1848, 1972
16. The Clean Water Act was actually called by this name in
a. 1977
b. 1972
c. 1948
d. 1848
5. Management of the Oceans
Short Answer
1. State the location of the most productive areas of the ocean and explain why those areas are so
productive.
2. Explain why the number of trophic levels in a food web is important in fisheries. How are marine
food webs different from those found in terrestrial systems?
3. What is the compensation depth and where is it found in the ocean?
4. Explain MSY and draw a graph of this idea. Be complete.
5. State what you think is the most important reason why fishery management has been so poor and
present arguments in defense of your choice.
6. List and explain four actions that have been used by fisheries managers to control fish harvests.
7. Define the following terms and explain how each one reduces the size of fish stocks or damages the
ecosystem: ghost nets, by-catch, high grading practice, IUU.
8. List five things that threaten marine fisheries, explain why they are damaging and explain which one
you think does the most damage.
9. Aquaculture is the trend of the future. Explain at least two good points of aquaculture and two
negative points.
10. Why does fish production vary so much in different parts of the ocean? Locate the most productive
areas in the ocean and state why they are high in productivity.
11. Describe the findings and purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.
Multiple Choice
1. The oceans cover about ________ of the Earth’s surface.
a. 50%
b. 60%
c. 70%
d. 80%
2. Ecosystems with the world’s highest net primary productivity per unit area are found in the
a. coastal zone.
b. abyssal zone.
c. bathyal zone.
d. xeric zone.
3. Compensation depth is the depth to which
a. fish can live comfortably.
b. sunlight can penetrate clear ocean waters.
c. limit of primary productivity.
d. the lowest part of the ocean bottom extends.
4. Most photosynthesis in the ocean system happens in the
a. photic zone.
b. abyssal zone.
c. bathyal zone.
d. xeric zone.
5. The ocean is an extremely variable environment. Some differences in ocean productivity can be due to
a. lack of mineral nutrients.
b. instability of light environment.
c. lack of fish resources.
d. Both a and b are correct.
6. Only about one-percent of the food for humans comes from the sea due to the fact that
a. there is not enough food in the sea to provide more food.
b. fish are not as good at providing nutrition as beef or chicken.
c. humans cannot eat farm-raised fish.
d. fish from the sea are top carnivores and they have less trophic energy to give.
7. Over half of the area of estuaries and coastal wetlands in the U.S. has been destroyed or damaged by
a. sewage runoff.
b. filling in the area to build human habitation.
c. pesticides and heavy metal pollution.
d. All of these answers are correct.
8. Areas of the ocean where new nutrients are constantly being added are
a. estuaries, shallow areas and upwelling zones.
b. estuaries, coral reefs and the deep abyss.
c. shallow areas, coral reefs and coastal zones.
d. upwelling zones, the deep abyss and coastal zones.
9. International fisheries acts are effective at preventing or terminating overfishing.
a. TRUE
b. FALSE
10. What is a population or stock of fish?
a. A population or stock, a geographic subset of a species, is the unit that is regulated.
b. A population or stock is a subset of fish that are regulated.
c. A population or stock is one kind of fish.
d. A population or stock, an entire species, is the unit that is regulated.
11. Which of the following is true?
a. Logistic growth follows an S-shaped curve that levels out at carrying capacity.
b. Exponential growth follows an S-shaped curve that levels out at carrying capacity.
c. Both a and b are correct.
d. Neither a nor b is correct.
12. Which of the following is true?
a. Logistic growth follows a J-shaped curve that does not level out.
b. Exponential growth follows a J-shaped curve that does not level out.
c. Both a and b are correct.
d. Neither a nor b is correct.
13. Some of the traditional assumptions of fisheries management have always been
a. that the size of the stock next year can be modeled by a simple additive and subtractive
equation, based on this year’s stock size.
b. that in the absence of fishing harvest, the stock size will remain constant.
c. fishing effort remains constant each year.
d. All of these are traditional assumptions.
14. A fishery manager can control the harvest of fish by
a. reducing the length of harvest period.
b. restricting the type of gear that is legal.
c. restricting the size of area that can be fished.
d. set a biomass quota that can be harvested.
e. All of these are correct.
15. Maximum sustainable yield is the theory that
a. yield remains constant.
b. stock size of a particular species is not known.
c. there is a maximum amount of fish that can be removed from a stock that allow for the
best fishing returns.
d. there is a minimum amount of fish that can be removed from a stock that allow for the
best fishing returns.
16. Regulation of fishing is best done using
a. honesty in fishermen.
b. quotas that regulate the amount of fish caught.
c. removing all of the fish from the sea. Then you would not have to regulate them!
17. Aquaculture is the production of fish in a farm situation. Which of the following is a benefit
associated with aquaculture?
a. Production of fish is more economical.
b. There is more devastation of the sea floor.
c. It allows for farming of fish that are not available in the wild.
d. The run-off from fish farms is not bad for the environment.
18. “The fish off the coasts of the United States, the highly migratory species of the high seas, the species
which dwell on or in the Continental Shelf appertaining to the United States, and the anadromous species
which spawn in United States rivers or estuaries, constitute valuable and renewable natural resources.”
a. This is part of the Clean Water Act.
b. This is part of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.
c. This is PL 94-269 and has no name.
d. This is something the US realized in the 1990s.
19. One of the purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Act was to
a. take immediate action to preserve stocks.
b. make trouble for fishermen.
c. take immediate action to protect whales.
d. deplete fish stocks.
20. Certain stocks of fish have declined to the point where their survival is threatened, and other stocks of
fish have been so substantially reduced in number that they could become similarly threatened as a
consequence of
a. increased fishing pressure.
b. the inadequacy of fishery resource conservation and management practices and controls.
c. direct and indirect habitat losses which have resulted in a diminished capacity to support
existing fishing levels.
d. All of these are correct.
e. Only B and C are correct.
21. One important aspect of the Magnuson-Stevens Act is that it recognized that
a. fish stocks are increasing at an exponential rate.
b. commercial and recreational fishing constitutes a major source of employment and contributes
significantly to the economy of the Nation.
c. recreational fishing constitutes a major source of employment and contributes significantly to
the economy of the Nation.
d. commercial fishing constitutes a major source of employment and contributes significantly to
the economy of the Nation.
22. Fishery resources are finite but renewable.
a. TRUE
b. FALSE
6. Whaling and the IWC
Short Answer
1. Describe the New England whaling era. Be sure to state the years it operated, how many ships were
used, what whales were caught and what do YOU think caused it to decline?
2. Describe what a factory ship is and why it is useful in a whaling operation. Be sure to state the
numbers of different whales killed after the advent of factory ships. Why was it so much easier to kill the
whales then?
3. What happens in a whale sanctuary? Does whaling still happen there? Why were those sanctuaries
created?
4. Describe 4 research controversies associated with whaling in general.
Multiple Choice
1. The Japanese were the first nation to begin commercial whaling.
a. True
b. False
2. The Basques were the first nation to begin commercial whaling.
a. True
b. False
3. Which of the following nations are still whaling?
a. Norway, Iceland, Russia, Japan, the United States and Denmark.
b. Australia, Japan, Russia and Denmark.
c. Norway, Iceland, Russia, Japan and Denmark.
d. Only Japan and Norway.
4. Why does Japan fund fisheries in other countries?
a. Because those countries are all poor and they need to be able to catch more fish.
b. To improve the technology of those countries.
c. To garner more votes at the IWC.
d. Because they have a lot of money and they want to help people.
5. The article that allows for scientific whaling in the IWC convention is
a. V
b. VI
c. VII
d. VIII
6. Which of the following countries was NOT an original signatory of the IWCR?
a. Australia
b. Japan
c. USSR
d. Denmark
7. Where was the first convention on the regulation of whaling signed?
a. Tokyo, Japan.
b. Washington, DC.
c. St. Petersburg, Russia.
d. Sydney Australia.
8. When was the first Blue whale killed with a bomb gun?
a. 1955
b. 1800
c. 1655
d. 1855
9. When did the sperm whale fishery open?
a. 1791
b. 1800
c. 1751
d. 1855
10. Why did the Basques hunt the Right whales?
a. They were the “right” whale to hunt because they were really big.
b. They were the “right” whale to hunt because they sank when they were killed.
c. They were the “right” whale to hunt because they washed ashore when they were killed.
d. They were the “right” whale to hunt because they floated when they were killed.
11. Today there are still drive fisheries for whales. Which of the following countries practices this type
of whaling?
a. The United States, The Faeroe Islands
b. The Faeroe Islands, Denmark
c. Japan, The Faeroe Islands
d. Australia, Japan
12. What is a marine protected area?
a. Areas closed to all human activities.
b. Special areas established for conservation.
c. Areas allowing specific recreation and commercial uses, much like national parks.
d. A variety of conservation and management methods in the United States.
13. The US has more than ___________ MPAs that occupy ___________ of US waters.
a. 1000, 30%
b. 1000, 40%
c. 1600, 30%
d. 1600, 40%
14. What does multiple-use mean?
a. An MPA can be used for recreational fishing but not commercial fishing.
b. An MPA can be used for snorkeling and waterskiing but not fishing.
c. An MPA that has specific areas for specific purposes and fishing is allowed there.
d. An MPA with a no-take policy but other uses are allowed.
15. Most US MPAs are located in
a. California.
b. the Bahamas.
c. Florida.
d. the Virginian Atlantic marine ecosystem.
16. A no-take MPA is one where
a. no recreational activity is permitted.
b. fishing is allowed but the fish must be released after they are caught.
c. no fishing is allowed, but extraction of other natural resources is permitted.
d. human access and even some potentially harmful uses, but that totally prohibit the extraction or
significant destruction of natural and cultural resources.
17. One of the best things about MPAs is that they have
a. unspoiled areas of water within them.
b. an ongoing biological monitoring program.
c. no impact from people at all.
d. a lot of really rare fish contained within the boundaries.
7. Management of Grazing Lands
Short Answer
1. How have animals adapted to grazing?
2. Describe five grazers. Be complete.
3. How have plants adapted to herbivory? Explain at least three adaptations.
4. Describe the settlement of the American prairie. Be sure to include whether you think this was a good
thing or a bad thing. Defend your position.
5. Describe the effects of fire on prairie lands. Be complete.
6. Explain the concept of resource partitioning. Give an example from Africa.
7. Does grazing increase plant productivity?
8. Does grazing change plant community composition?
Multiple Choice
1. Grazers serve to ____________ energy from widely dispersed plants.
a. disperse
b. concentrate
c. expend
d. manage
2. Grazing animals include
a. insects, cows, snails and dugongs.
b. cows, horses and wolves.
c. manatees, giraffes, deer and earthworms.
d. dinosaurs, birds, dogs and ground sloths.
3. Some herbivores have a __________ in their digestive system to help them break down plants.
a. appendix
b. caecum
c. colon
d. esophagus
4. One way to separate herbivores into their classification units (orders) is to
a. examine their feces.
b. examine their skulls.
c. examine their teeth.
d. examine their fur.
5. Which of the following animals are ruminants?
a. cattle, sheep, goats, deer, pigs and elephants
b. cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs and elephants
c. cattle, sheep, goats, deer, manatees and elephants
d. cattle, sheep, goats, deer, camels and bison
6. The ruminant digestive system has ______ chambers.
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 6
7. Which of the following is the most efficient at digesting plant material?
a. ruminants
b. non-ruminants
c. Both a and b.
d. Neither a nor b.
8. In order to keep herbivores from eating them, plants have evolved digestion resistant chemicals in their
cells. Which of the following are examples of this kind of chemical?
a. DDT
b. tannin
c. lignin
d. Both b and c.
9. Plants have adapted to herbivore grazing by developing
a. movement.
b. low rosette juveniles.
c. short flowering stalks.
d. no chemical deterrents.
10. Which of the following does not affect the damage done by fires on a prairie?
a. temperature of the fire
b. the type of fuel available
c. the amount of fuel available
d. the cause of the fire
11. The American prairie was really created by
a. limited precipitation.
b. summer rain as well as summer drought.
c. periodic fires.
d. grazing pressures.
e. All of these helped to create the American prairie.
12. Which of the following is true?
a. Wildebeest, zebra and Thompson’s gazelle on the Serengeti Mara engage in resource
partitioning by eating different parts of plants.
b. Wildebeest, zebra and Thompson’s gazelle on the Serengeti Mara do not engage in
resource partitioning.
c. The idea that animals would eat different parts of plants is silly.
d. Herbivores all eat the same parts of plants and resource partitioning is a myth.
13. How much of the global surface is grazing land?
a. 15%
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. 75%
14. When do fires occur most frequently on the American Prairie?
a. January – February
b. April – May
c. July – August
d. October – November
8. Management of Soil
Short Answer
1. Describe in detail at least three ways erosion can be slowed down or stopped. Be sure to state whether
or not these methods work.
2. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of organic and inorganic fertilizer.
3. Describe at least five natural weathering factors associated with soils.
4. Describe five factors that cause soil particles to aggregate.
5. Describe five sources of inorganic fertilizer.
6. Does converting natural vegetation to farmland increase soil erosion? Why or why not?
7. If you inherited a farm that had worn out soil, what steps could you take to rehabilitate its
productivity? Arrange the steps in rank order from most feasible to least feasible.
8. Why is eroded material that washes into a stream harmful to the aquatic animals living in streams?
9. Would it be possible to use human feces to fertilize the land? Describe the benefits and detriments of
such a plan.
10. List five factors affecting the rate of soil erosion.
Multiple Choice
1. Soil is developed through
a. moving tectonic plates.
b. earthquakes.
c. weathering.
d. mass wasting.
2. The surface litter horizon of the soil is described by the letter
a. A.
b. B.
c. C.
d. O.
3. Dissolving material from the upper layers of the soil and movement to lower horizons is called
a. percolation.
b. weathering.
c. accumulation.
d. leaching.
4. Humus is
a. indicative of poor soils.
b. light in color or nearly white.
c. poisonous to soil microorganisms.
d. partially decomposed organic matter.
5. Acidic soils can be neutralized by adding
a. lime.
b. water.
c. phosphate.
d. sulfur.
6. The greatest amount of soil erosion is caused by
a. moving water.
b. wind.
c. earthquakes.
d. volcanos.
7. Of the following anthropogenic activities, which contributes the most to soil erosion?
a. mining
b. urban construction
c. forestry
d. agriculture
8. Soil accumulates faster in some areas than in others. Which of the following areas has the highest rate
of soil accumulation?
a. cold, high latitudes
b. floodplains
c. areas that receive torrential rains all of the time
d. beaches
9. Salt build-up may eventually make land unproductive. Which of the following plants could decrease
the salt accumulation in an agricultural field?
a. acrophytes
b. chromophyte
c. hydrophyte
d. halophyte
10. Soil provides important macronutrients to plants growing within it. One of these is not a
macronutrient plants need, which is it?
a. S
b. Zn
c. C
d. N
11. Sediment in streams can have a negative effect on the organisms living there. Which of the following
is not a negative effect of sediment in streams?
a. Increasing the complexity of the substrate in the streambed.
b. Smothering the benthic animals and plants.
c. Causing damage to delicate areas of fish, like the gills, or burying their eggs.
d. Filling in marshes, channels, lakes and rivers.
12. Which of the following is least likely to increase soil nutrients?
a. Practicing good crop rotation in fields.
b. Fertilizing crops with composted material from a garden.
c. Fertilizing with manure from animals that graze in those fields during the day.
d. Irrigating fields to provide water.
13. Which of the following is a positive aspect of inorganic fertilizer?
a. They are very expensive to produce and to use.
b. They require a great deal of fossil fuel use to produce.
c. They reduce organic content in soils.
d. They reduce the ability of bacteria and plants to fix nitrogen.
e. None of the above.
9. Management of Forests
1. Describe a forest community. How are deciduous and coniferous communities different?
2. What is silviculture and how is it practiced in the U.S.?
3. Can the world’s forests supply our needs on a sustainable basis or is loss of forests inevitable? Explain
your reasoning using examples from this lecture.
4. Describe even-aged and uneven-aged stand management. Do you think one method works better?
Why or why not?
5. How can humans obtain all of our timber needs from forests without damaging them too much? Be
sure to talk about not only wood, but also other products that are used which come from forests.
6. Define each of the following forest ecology terms: zonation, succession structure and landscape
ecology.
7. List the five basic ideals of the field of landscape ecology.
8. Describe the future of forest management. How would YOU manage a forest to maximize its
usefulness?
Multiple Choice
1. How much forested land exists in the U.S.?
a. 10%
b. 30%
c. 60%
d. 90%
2. Growing trees in a managed system of planting and harvest is known as
a. horticulture.
b. agriculture.
c. treticulture.
d. silviculture.
3. Forests remove ________________ and add ________________ to the atmosphere.
a. oxygen, carbon dioxide
b. nitrogen, oxygen
c. carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide
d. carbon dioxide, oxygen
4. Succession can be defined as
a. a spatial change in species composition, community structure and function.
b. a change in species composition, community structure and function over time at a given location.
c. a vertical stratification of vegetation at one point in both space and time.
d. the study of the causes and consequences of spatial patterns in the landscape.
5. The basic ideals of landscape ecology include
a. A patterned landscape consists of a mosaic of patches of different origins embedded in a matrix.
b. Patches and corridors influence physical flows and organism movements across a landscape.
c. Fragmentation of the environment results in habitat patches of various sizes.
d. All of these are ideals of landscape ecology.
6. The edge of a forest habitat is composed of areas of
a. boundary and side.
b. boundary and border.
c. border and side.
d. border and line.
7. The idea of a shifting-mosaic steady state is that
a. the process of succession is never-ending and is brought about by the continuous processes of birth,
growth and death of individuals within the community.
b. the process of moving from one type of tree to another.
c. the process of staying at a constant steady mosaic across the landscape.
d. the processes of the continuous birth, growth and death of individuals within the community have
no impact on the community.
8. From a purely economic standpoint, the rates of return on forestry are likely to be
a. high.
b. medium level.
c. reasonable.
d. low.
9. The five structural layers of stratification in most forests are
a. emergent, understory, lower layer, herb and immature.
b. emergent, canopy, understory, immature and herb.
c. immature, canopy, understory, lower layer and herb.
d. upper canopy, lower canopy, underside, emergent and herb.
10. The national forests of the U.S. are managed on
a. a sustainable-yield multiple-use basis.
b. a restricted-use basis.
c. a maximum timber production schedule.
d. the basis of political expectations.
11. The objectives of a typical forest management plan include
a. regeneration of a forest on a suitable site.
b. production of the maximum amount of timber possible for the site.
c. development of trees that are resistant to insects and disease
d. All of these are objectives of forest management.
12. One method for creating even-aged stands is the
a. clear-cutting method.
b. wood method
c. tree method
d. silviculture method.
13. In a typical forest, animals all live in the same levels of the canopy and eat the same food. This
brings about niche specialization.
a. True
b. False
14. Which of the following is NOT an objective of forest management?
a. minimize loss
b. maximize return
c. resistance to insects and diseases
d. regeneration
e. timber production
15. The greatest threat to US forests is:
a. landscape fragmentation.
b. urbanization.
c. invasive species.
d. Both A and B.
e. Both B and C.
10. Management of Urban Areas
1. List and describe at least five problems associated with urbanization.
2. What is Low Impact Development and how is it useful?
3. Draw a diagram showing the features of a low impact development in a residential or commercial area.
4. Describe your concept of a rain garden. How and where would you create one at George Mason
University? Be specific about your placement of the garden, please.
5. List and describe three benefits that can be obtained from buildings that have a green roof installed.
6. What is the largest impediment to the creation of green roofs, in your opinion?
7. Describe the concept of vertical farming. Be sure to include how it could be beneficial to the growing
human population.
8. You have been hired to use all of the current technology to design a green development. Describe the
techniques you would use and why you would use them. Be sure to hit all of the highlights we talked
about in class.
9. Think about our earlier discussion of water and the water cycle when you answer this question. Why
are low impact development and other forms of green development so centered on the hydrology of the
sites?
Multiple Choice
1. The movement of housing and shopping areas into areas that are more rural is known as
a. ruralization.
b. urban sprawl.
c. colonization.
d. rural sprawl.
2. Which of the following is not a fundamental principle of low impact development?
a. Conservation of natural areas.
b. Maximization of development impacts.
c. Maintenance of site runoff rate.
d. Utilization of integrated management practices.
3. Porous concrete is better than regular concrete because
a. it allows water to flow through it and into the ground water reservoir.
b. it decreases run-off.
c. it meets EPA regulations for stormwater regulations
d. All of these are true.
4. An integrated management practice is defined as
a. large-scale wastewater management controls that are strategically distributed throughout a
development site.
b. small-scale wastewater management controls that are strategically distributed throughout a
development site.
c. large-scale stormwater management controls that are strategically distributed throughout a
development site.
d. small-scale stormwater management controls that are strategically distributed throughout a
development site.
5. Bioretention is defined as
a. Biological removal of contaminants or nutrients.
b. Biological removal of contaminants or nutrients as oil passes through a media or biological
system
c. Biological removal of contaminants or nutrients as fluid passes through a media or a biological
system.
d. None of these are correct.
6. A green roof is defined as
a. a cool color for shingles on houses because it eliminates heat retention.
b. a roof that is partially or completely covered in plants that are planted over a waterproofing
membrane.
c. a building that has plants on the terrace.
d. a roof that is covered in plants each growing season but barren in the winter months
11. Pollution and Recycling
1. Define the term endocrine disruptor and give four examples.
2. You are in charge of cleaning up an oil spill. Describe how you would use bioremediation techniques
in order to accomplish this task.
3. Define the terms LC50 and LD50.
4. Define bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and biomagnification and give an example of each.
5. Toxic chemicals have the properties toxicity and hazard. Define each and explain how something can
be very hazardous but not very toxic.
6. Do pollutants always increase in concentration as they pass up the food chain? Explain.
Multiple Choice
1. Of the following organisms, which is the least likely to cause disease in humans when a human comes
into casual contact with it?
a. bacteria
b. protozoa
c. oak trees
d. viruses
2. Which of the following causes the largest source of air pollution?
a. agriculture
b. industry
c. transportation
d. residential
3. __________ is the biggest polluter of the environment in Fairfax County.
a. Motiva Springfield Terminal
b. Exxon Mobil Corp. Newington Terminal
c. Sicpa Securink Corporation
d. Crown Central Petroleum Corporation
4. Which of the following is greater?
a. acute effective concentration
b. chronic effective concentration
5. How are pollutants absorbed by terrestrial plants?
a. through the leaves from the air
b. through the roots from the soil
c. Both A and B.
d. Only A but not B.
e. Only B but not A.
6. Chemical pollution is which of the following?
a. Any acid or base that is potentially harmful to the environment.
b. Any soap that is potentially harmful to the environment.
c. Any chemical that is potentially harmful to the environment.
d. Any substance that is potentially harmful to the environment.
7. The peregrine falcon was driven to extremely low numbers because of
a. PCBs.
b. extreme predation.
c. DDT.
d. overhunting.
8. Recycling is often thought of as
a. reuse.
b. repurposing.
c. recovering.
d. All of these.
9. Recycling at George Mason University is overseen by
a. the registrar.
b. the Office of Waste Management.
c. Rathje and Psihoyos.
d. the Office of Sustainability.
10. The average person generates over ___________ pounds of trash every day and about ___________
tons of solid waste per year.
a. 4; 1.5
b. 1.5; 4
c. 14; 15
d. 15; 14
11. Recycling ____________ aluminum can saves enough energy to listen to a full album on your iPod.
a. ten
b. twenty
c. five
d. one
12. Americans throw away 25,000,000 plastic bottles every __________________.
a. second
b. minute
c. hour
d. day
13. Monofilament fishing line takes ___________ years to decompose.
a. 6
b. 60
c. 600
d. 6000
12. Pests
1. Do you think that humans can prevent pests from becoming resistant to pesticides or delay it in some
manner? Explain your reasoning.
2. Pests that invade crops can be controlled by changing the management of the fields. Describe two
ways in which you would implement this system if you were a farmer.
3. Is biological control safe? Describe two things scientists can do to maximize the chances that
biological control will not cause damage to other organisms and the ecosystem.
4. In your opinion, what is the most damaging type of pest? Be sure to explain your reasoning
completely.
5. Can you envision a pest that could be helpful? Describe your new life form.
Multiple Choice
1. A pest is any organism that
a. spreads disease.
b. interferes with human activity.
c. competes with humans.
d. All of these.
2. According to proponents of pesticides, these chemicals can
a. work faster than alternative controls.
b. cost money and lives.
c. kill insects that transmit disease.
d. All of these.
e. Only A and C.
3. The ideal pesticide would
a. kill only the target pest.
b. not be persistent
c. allow the development of genetic resistance.
d. be of equal value to the damage the pest would have caused.
4. In biological magnification,
a. organisms in the lower trophic levels accumulate lethal doses of toxins.
b. the organisms at the upper end of the food chain receive lower doses than those below.
c. organisms at higher trophic levels have more concentrated levels of toxic substances.
d. the environment has higher concentrations of toxins than organisms in the food chain.
5. Pesticides are potentially linked to
a. childhood brain cancer.
b. immune system disorders.
c. endocrine system disorders.
d. All of these.
6. Which of the following would be least effective in trying to reduce insect damage?
a. rotating crops
b. delaying planting
c. planting monoculture
d. planting barrier hedges around agricultural fields
7. Biological control, or the use of another organism to control a pest,
a. costs more than pesticides to use.
b. is not target specific.
c. is often self-perpetuating once the control organism is established.
d. has effects only on animals and is almost totally ineffective against weedy plants.
e. Both B and C are true.
13. Invasive Species
1. Define invasive species.
2. Discuss one of the invasive species from the Invasive Species website (www.invasive.org) not found
in the lecture. Be sure to state where it began its invasion. Can it be eliminated, permanently or
temporarily? Why is it invasive? Does it harm something? Describe as much information as you can
about this species. Be sure to correctly state the scientific name of the species. Must be one side of one
page double spaced using 12 point Times New Roman font.
3. One purpose of the Refuge Ecology Protection, Assistance, and Immediate Response Act is: “To
protect, enhance, restore, and manage a diversity of habitats for native fish and wildlife resources within
the National Wildlife Refuge System through control of harmful nonnative species.” If you were a forest
ranger in the National Wildlife Refuge System, how would you go about implementing this law?
Multiple Choice
1. It is important to remove invasive species from invaded habitats in order to protect the habitat from
other invasive species.
a. True
b. False
2. The IUCN defines an invasive species as
a. an introduced species.
b. a non-indigenous species.
c. a species that causes damage.
d. a non-native species.
3. What do most of the invasive species covered in lecture have in common?
a. They are all from the U.S.
b. They are all from outside the U.S.
c. They are all insects or mollusks.
d. They are all impossible to remove from the invaded ecosystem.
4. According to the Ballast Water Treatment Act of 2008 HR 2423
a. All ships must refrain from taking on ballast water from US waters.
b. All ships must refrain from dumping ballast water in US waters.
c. All ships must treat ballast water before dumping it in US waters.
d. All ships must not treat ballast water before dumping it in US waters.
5. The purpose of the Refuge Ecology Protection, Assistance, and Immediate Response Act HR 767 is
a. to protect, enhance, restore, and manage a diversity of habitats for native fish and wildlife
resources within the National Wildlife Refuge System through control of harmful nonnative
species.
b. to protect the diversity of habitats for native fish and wildlife resources within the National
Wildlife Refuge System through control of harmful nonnative species.
c. to enhance the diversity of habitats for native fish and wildlife resources within the National
Wildlife Refuge System through control of harmful nonnative species.
d. to restore and manage the diversity of habitats for native fish and wildlife resources within the
National Wildlife Refuge System through control of harmful nonnative species.
6. All non-native or exotic plants are invasive species.
a. True
b. False
7. Invasive plants are characterized by:
a. fast growth rates.
b. high fruit production.
c. rapid spread.
d. All of the above.
8. Invasive plant species would be expected to
a. devote a higher-than-average allocation of resources to reproduction.
b. have higher-than-average concentrations of protective compounds.
c. be susceptible to a greater-than-average number of herbivores.
d. Both a and b.
9. Invasive plant and animal species
a. are detrimental because they often out-compete native species for resources.
b. do not pose any threat to native species so long as they are adapted to the area.
c. generally have low growth rates.
d. generally provide adaptive disease-inhibiting properties to native plants.
e. are usually restricted to small areas.
14. Conservation and Management of Wild Species
Short Answer
1. Why are small populations more threatened with extinction?
2. What should the two main aims of conservation be? Explain your reasoning.
3. If an area of an uncommon type of vegetation is reduced to small separated patches, how will this
affect the population of animals living there? Would there be a difference in the reaction of the animals if
that patch was a more common type of vegetation? How?
4. What features of animal life control the amount of space they need to survive? Describe two. Why
can an animal the size of a raccoon survive so well in a city? Do humans change the amount of space
animals need to survive? How?
5. Some ecologists think that habitat corridors are very important and some think that animals can
function just as well without them. As usual, both of these opinions are likely true. Explain how both can
be true at the same time.
6. Can humans alter conditions in such a way as to promote high diversity? How would you achieve this
aim?
7. Describe the creation from the beginning through the present of the Shenandoah National Park. Be
complete.
8. Describe how the Endangered Species Act works and what is contained within the document.
Multiple Choice
1. A species whose role is absolutely vital for the survival of many other species in an ecosystem is
called a(n) ____________________ species.
a. kingpin
b. keystone
c. invaluable
d. critical
2. The single largest reason for the current decline in biodiversity is
a. pollution
b. alteration of habitats.
c. poaching.
d. introduction of exotic species.
e. There is no single reason. All of the above are true.
3. The value of a natural species may be
a. recreational and aesthetic.
b. as a source for medicine.
c. as a source for agriculture.
d. commercial.
e. All of these.
4. Mathematical models indicate that organisms that are the most vulnerable to habitat loss are
a. herbivores.
b. top carnivores.
c. decomposers.
d. bacteria.
5. What is an exotic species?
a. A type of zoo animal.
b. A species that stays in really nice locations.
c. A species introduced to an area from some other place.
d. Something that is always very dangerous to the environment.
6. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) was passed in
a. 1963
b. 1973
c. 1983
d. 1993
7. Which of the following species were driven to extinction by human activities since 1700?
a. manatees, passenger pigeons, dodos
b. sharks, manatees, passenger pigeons
c. Steller’s sea cow, passenger pigeons, dinosaurs
d. Steller’s sea cow, passenger pigeons, dodos
8. Small populations of species are more likely to
a. be below critical population density.
b. be vulnerable to stochastic processes.
c. be more likely to survive in a well-connected metapopulation.
d. All of the above.
9. In a typical forest, animals all live in the same levels of the canopy and eat the same food. This brings
about niche specialization.
a. True
b. False
10. All of the following would make a species more prone to extinction except
a. low population density.
b. small body size.
c. specialized niche.
d. low reproductive rate.
11. The ESA was designed to preserve the
a. recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its people.
b. aesthetic, ecological, and scientific value to our Nation and its people.
c. aesthetic, ecological, educational, recreational, and scientific value to the World and its people.
d. aesthetic, ecological, educational, recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its
people.
12. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was passed in
a. 1942
b. 1952
c. 1962
d. 1972
13. Which of the following species were already extinct by the time the ESA was passed?
a. Steller’s sea cow and the Carolina parakeet
b. The Ivory billed woodpecker and the Carolina Parakeet
c. The blue pike and the Carolina parakeet
d. Steller’s sea cow and the blue pike
14. The ESA is administered by
a. NMFS
b. FWS
c. The states
d. Both A and B.
e. Both B and C.
15. One thing the ESA requires is that all listed species have
a. at least 500 members in the population.
b. at least 50 members in the population.
c. a scientist dedicated to studying the population.
d. a recovery plan.
16. The Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
is an international treaty enacted in
a. 1963
b. 1973
c. 1983
d. 1993
17. The IUCN maintains
a. the Endangered Species Lists.
b. the Red Lists.
c. the Blue Lists.
d. Appendix 1 and 2.
18. The MMPA was originally designed to
a., replenish stocks, increase knowledge of stocks and to protect resources of great international
significance.
b. protect stocks, and to protect resources of great international significance.
c. protect stocks, keep stocks from falling below OSP, replenish stocks, increase knowledge of
stocks and to protect resources of great international significance.
d. protect stocks, keep stocks from falling below OSP, and replenish stocks.
19. Which of the following initiatives would not be included in modern conservation biology’s efforts to
preserve biodiversity?
a. Preserving the economic value gained from commercial fisheries.
b. Protecting a species of butterfly for its intrinsic beauty.
c. Protecting a woody shrub because of its medicinal applications.
d. Protecting a sea otter because the community is more stable with that species present.
e.All of the above would be efforts of modern conservation biology.
20. The purpose of the IUCN is to
a. increase climate change, achieve sustainable energy, improve human well-being and build a
green economy.
b. tackle climate change, eliminate sustainable energy, improve human well-being and build a
green economy.
c. tackle climate change, achieve sustainable energy, improve human well-being and build a
better economy.
d. tackle climate change, achieve sustainable energy, improve human well-being and build a
green economy.
21. The CITES treaty produced the
a. Red Lists.
b. Blue Lists
c. three Appendices (I, II and III).
d. Endangered Species Lists.
15. Human-Wildlife Conflicts
1. Write the definition of HWC that you think best summarizes the idea. Defend your idea as the BEST
answer based on what you learned in class.
2. Describe at least five reasons why HWC occurs.
3. Describe the complete problems and solutions associated with one of the animals we discussed in class.
4. Even though most HWC surrounds terrestrial animals, there is a great deal of conflict between
manatees and certain groups of humans in Florida. Make a case to defend the manatees and the case one
of the human groups would make to remove the manatees. Be sure to comment on which side you think
is more correct. I will not be biased. So choose the side you most associate with.
5. What can be done to accommodate both the elephants in Africa and the humans struggling to survive
there? State and defend three ideas.
6. We covered only a few of the animals that are in conflict with humans. What other animals are
involved in HWC? Describe the biology and the conflict surrounding your animal.
Multiple Choice
1. HWC is escalating worldwide because of
a. declining human population.
b. land use transformation
c. habitat loss, degradation, fragmentation.
d. ecotravel and declining access to nature reserves.
e. Both B and C are correct.
2. When working on problems of HWC, it is important to
a. remove all of the animals causing issues.
b. fence animals into an area where they will not cause problems for humans.
c. keep humans completely out of animal territories.
d. consider an interdisciplinary approach to conflict that incorporate as much information
as possible about the animals, but also takes into account the human dimension.
3. The best strategy to control elephants in Africa is
a. transport problem animals to another area.
b. fence the area with something elephants do not like, chili peppers for instance.
c. keep humans out of elephant territory.
d. ignore the problem.
4. What is the biggest problem with cormorants in Israel?
a. Humans do not like them.
b. They are making a mess of the areas by with excess defecation.
c. They eat commercially important fish.
d. They migrate into houses in the area.
5. Coyotes have been present in __________________ since ___________________.
a. Rock Creek Park, 2004
b. Mason Neck Park, 2004
c. Burke Lake Park, 2005
d. Quantico Park, 2006
6. Coyotes are important in the Washington D.C. ecosystem because
a. they are top carnivores and keep some pest animals under control.
b. they are pests and must be kept under control.
c. they are herbivores and keep weeds under control.
d. they have been in the ecosystem for many years and they cause it to work correctly.
7. Manatees evolved from __________________ footed animals ______ years ago.
a. four, 50 million
b. four, 60 million
c. two, 50 million
d. two, 60 million
8. Sirenians, in general, are very unusual in many ways. One of the most strange is
a. they evolved from whales.
b. they have axillary (under arm) nipples.
c. they have a broad flat tail to help them swim more rapidly.
d. there were once many different Sirenians inhabiting the warm waters of the Earth.
9. Steller’s sea cows were found on two islands in the north Pacific in ________ by Georg Steller and
they were hunted to extinction by Russian fur hunters by ________.
a. 1941, 1968
b. 1841, 1868
c. 1741, 1768
d. 1641, 1648
10. The largest human induced threat to manatees in Florida is
a. flood gates.
b. death of very young animals.
c. undetermined.
d. watercraft.
11. Cold stress is very bad for manatees because
a. Causes weight loss, skin lesions, gastrointestinal disorders, internal abscesses and
secondary infections.
b. It is little understood.
c. Some animals suffer a mild version after severe weather.
d. It is worse for smaller, younger and less experienced animals.
e. All of the above.
12. Manatees in Florida are protected by
a. Florida State law (Ch. 4208.94) (1893)
b. Endangered Species Act (1973)
c. Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972)
d. Only A and B.
e. The laws listed in A, B, and C.
16. Predator Control
1. Are predators important to the ecosystem? Why or why not?
2. Describe a typical predator-prey relationship. Draw a graph showing this type of relationship between
a rabbit and a lynx. Is this what actually happens between these organisms? Why or why not?
3. Describe the history of predator management in the US.
4. Describe predator management strategies for coyotes, cougars, wolves or bears in the US (choose
one). What policy do wildlife managers usually have for management of predators in reserves?
5. Usually when ecologists talk about predators, they mean large mammals. Are there other kinds of
predators that need to be controlled? Think about this one. State and explain your opinion.
Multiple Choice
1. _____ populations are at least partially determined by their food supplies, not just their ____.
a. prey, predator
b. predator, prey
c. neither
d. both
2. ____ populations respond to the entire community of ____, not just a single species.
a. prey, predator
b. predator, prey
c. neither
d. both
3. ____ populations are affected by factors other than just the ____ population density.
a. prey, predator
b. predator, prey
c. neither
d. both
4. Saving predators is really a bad idea since they provide no helpful effect to the environment.
a. true
b. false
c. maybe
d. I don’t know.
5. Opinions about predators stem from European settlers. They thought predators were
a. competitors with humans for game.
b. threats to human safety.
c. threats to the health of livestock.
d. werewolves.
e. All of the above.
6. In 1931 the Animal Damage Control Act authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to ___ predators.
(Remember this is law, you must use the exact wording.)
a. eliminate
b. eradicate
c. exterminate
d. eat
7. The Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration act was passed in
a. 1937
b. 1947
c. 1957
d. 1967
8. By January 2010, the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration act had raised _______ dollars.
a. 2 hundred
b. 2 thousand
c. 2 million
d. 2 billion
9. Bounties cost the state of North Dakota ____ dollars between 1897 and 1961.
a. 2.2 hundred
b. 2.2 thousand
c. 2.2 million
d. 2.2 billion
10. The main action of the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration act was to create
a. a ban on hunting predators.
b. a tax on hunting equipment.
c. a fee for each predator killed.
d. a tax on each predator killed.
11. Bounties on predators go back to _____ in _______ to control _____.
a. 1630, Massachusetts, wolves
b. 1630, Massachusetts, coyotes
c. 1830, Massachusetts, wolves
d. 1830, Massachusetts, coyotes
12. Until 1961, North Dakota had bounties on
a. wolf, rattlesnake, magpie, dogs, fox and coyote
b. wolf, rattlesnake, magpie, gopher, fox and coyote.
c. wolf, rattlesnake, magpie, gopher, fox and manatees.
d. wolf, rattlesnake, fox and coyote.
13. Bounties succeed in reducing predator populations on a large scale over a long period of time.
a. TRUE
b. FALSE
14. Bounties encourage fraud and cheating in presenting animals for payment. For instance, people
collecting bounties on animals taken in other states or out of the intended area.
a. TRUE
b. FALSE
BIOL/EVPP 377: Applied Ecology
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Scientific paper must contain facts.
Every fact included in your paper must be in your own
words. If you do not know the meaning of a word, use
another one.
Every fact in your paper must be cited. Use one of two
forms: (Last Name YEAR) or (Last Name, p. 6)if you are
quoting directly from the text. Keep in mind that quoting
directly is not usually done in scientific papers.
Research papers are not made to convince a reader just to
educate him/her. It is very important to write in the third
person. Leave out all references to “you”, “we”, “they”,
“their” or “I” unless you are actually the person that
conducted the research.
Nothing in a research paper should be in the posessive.
 Example: dolphin’s, climate change’s, etc.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
“Your” and “You’re” are not the same word.
The contraction of “could have” is not
spelled “could of”.
“Then” is a sequence of events. “Than” is
used for comparison.
Most of the time “affect” is a verb and
“effect” is a noun.
“Their”, “They’re” and “There” are completely
different words.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
“Too”, “Two” and “To” are completely
different words.
Your pants are “loose” and you “lose” your
keys.
You “bear” weight with your “bare” hands.
“A lot” is ALWAYS two words.
“Although” is good; “Though” is slang.
To take a person somewhere is “lead”; the
past tense of that is “led”; the metal is
“lead”.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
You have a rubric to tell you how to get the most points. Use
it all the time you are writing.
Use commas correctly. If you are unsure, leave it out!
The period or other punctuation goes after closing
parenthesis of the citation.
You use a spell checker and a grammar checker in your word
processing program. Pay attention to those suggestions!
Have someone else read your paper. Try your parents, they
always want to know what you are up to and they will
undoubtedly have an opinion.
Read your paper aloud to yourself.
When all else fails, or before, please ASK!!
Send your paper to me and I will read it……really……
1. Your
paper will include no less than 5 reputable
JOURNAL sources.
2. You must cite your references in proper form.
◦ Using Zotero you need the Journal of Ecology format.
3. You
must use proper English language.
Punctuation, spelling and grammar errors will
lower your final grade.
4. You must write your paper in the third person.
This means you may not use I, you, we, he, she,
they, their, our or any other personal pronouns.
o “The project will….”
Be sure you use scientific names correctly. And be
sure to USE them. Example:
1.
o
2.
o
3.
o
4.
5.
o
o
Trichechus (capital; italics) manatus (small; italics)
When referring to an animal by the scientific name:
The manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)……
Spell out an abbreviation the first time you use it.
Example:
The manatee was 2.5 meters (m) in length.
Look at your paper before you turn it in. Are all of
the sections on the same page as that section’s
title? Did you print the Literature Cited?
Start sentences with words not numbers or dates.
Example:
4 manatees were seen along the coast.
Four manatees were seen along the coast.
X



If you copy and paste from a paper and then
add a citation to the end of that sentence,
this is PLAGIARISM.
You MUST change EVERYTHING into your own
words and THEN cite the end of your new and
completely different sentence.




A rubric is a tool you can use to get an A. If
you do everything on the list correctly, you will
get all of the points. This is what I want you to
do!
There is a copy of the rubric on Blackboard.
You MUST print one and attach it to your paper
before you turn it in or I will deduct ten points
automatically.
You should grade yourselves. That way, you
may read the rubric and get everything correct!



PLEASE…ask for help. I do not know you
need help if you do not tell me.
You will create a four person team. On your
team you need to have two biology or
environmental science majors and two civil
and infrastructure engineering majors.
You may choose your own team but it must
be approved by me.






You MUST use a title page for your research
paper.
Choose a title that tells all about your subject.
You may insert pictures if you like.
You MUST put your word count on the Title
Page.
Put your names on the page, MINE is NOT
important, I did not write your paper.
In this example, you can see that they have
their organization affiliations listed as well.





Each section heading should be the SAME
FONT.
Each section heading should be BOLD and
should look exactly the same (same font style,
same alignment, same font size).
All fonts in the paper text should be the same.
One space before citation.
One BLANK line between sections.







An abstract is a summary of the main paper.
An abstract is not usually cited unless you
have statistics, dates or data from another
author’s paper in this section.
This is written last.
This should be 200 to 300 words long.
An abstract is NOT single spaced.
An abstract is NOT on a separate page.
You MAY include key words if you like.




Introduce the main points of the topic.
It is nice to allude to things you will cover.
Also give a succinct description of your topic,
defining any terms that may be required later.
You may not use pronouns (no “I”, “we”,
“you”, “they”, “their”, “he”, “she”)!




You are going to create a project that combines
two distinctive disciplines.
You may design an environmentally perfect
building. Think of something that is completely
off the grid.
You may design another type of
environmentally perfect project. Perhaps a city,
bridge, roadway, or a zoo.
If you have sections, give each section a title.
You may have a maximum of 3 sections and
each must be at least 2 paragraphs.

You may want to include graphs or charts or
pictures.
◦ If they are appropriate. Keep in mind, these things
are NOT usually appropriate in a summary paper
like the one you are writing.



Be sure to have a title and numbering system
for all pictures.
Begin with Figure 1, Table 1…etc.
Also be sure to put a caption with each.



This section also should describe other
projects that may be similar to yours.
You will need research from both disciplines
to support the feasibility of your ideas.
You need at least five journal sources that will
support the possibility of the project.




A conclusion is NEVER one paragraph! You MUST
have at least 2 paragraphs.
Wrap up your project into something simple that
you could present to a funding source.
OF COURSE you CITE in the conclusion if it is
required!!
You may wish to answer:
◦ What did you learn?
◦ What significance does your research show for science?
◦ Why should other people be interested in this topic?



Format is everything here.
Use this format exclusively!
USE Zotero. The program will fix everything
and make it completely correct.
Book:
Steller, Georg Wilhelm. 1988. Journal of a Voyage with Bering, 1741-1742. Edited
by O. W. Frost. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
Journal Article:
Packard, Jane M., R. Kipp Frohlich, John E. Reynolds, III and J. Ross
Wilcox. 1989. Manatee Response to Interruption of a Thermal Effluent. Journal
of Wildlife Management. 53(3):692-700.
Last name, First name. YEAR. Title. Journal Title. VOL(NUM):Pages.
Website:
Marine Mammal Protection Act:
http://www.fws.gov/laws/laws_digest/MARMAM.HTML

Go to the library and search for your papers.
◦ George Mason Library website

Keep in mind that you are downloading .pdf
copies of PAPERS, from JOURNALS.

When you cite them leave the web address
out.


You should use the program Zotero to create
your Literature Cited section.
Step 1: Download the software.

Click on the type of installation which works
for your computer.
◦ To run Zotero, you SHOULD use Mozilla Firefox. The
Stand Alone version of Zotero tends to cause
problems.
Recommended
NOT recommended


So you should STOP and install Firefox if you
do not have it on your computer.
The Stand Alone version of Zotero sometimes
has a hard time interfacing with word
processing programs and creating a library.

Click on the Add a plugin for Word or
LibreOffice.
Choose the plugin that will work with
your word processor. There are lots!


Now you have two plugins. One for Firefox
and one for your word processor.
If Zotero breaks for any reason, just re-install
it.
Click on the little grey wheel.
Select PREFERENCES.
Select CITE.
Select STYLES.
Select Get additional styles.
Search for Journal of Ecology.
Click on Journal of Ecology.
You will see an example of the citation
style.
Have Firefox install that style.



To be able to cite in your word processor, you
need to build a library in Zotero.
You can do this by searching on Google
Scholar or the databases at the library
(library.gmu.edu).
Type in as specific a topic as you can.
Click on the
yellow (or
white) box
to add
things to
your
library. You
can pick
sources or
add them
all.



To use Zotero, you must build a library. The
library allows you to cite easily into Word.
Keep in mind that you need Zotero running in
Mozilla Firefox AND in Microsoft Word in
order to cite correctly.
Also keep in mind that Zotero is prone to
error and you should CAREFULLY check
everything you allow it to put in your paper.


These examples are in Microsoft™ Word on a
PC. The Mac is slightly different.
If you have issues, please come see me with
your computer.
You can get a tab in your file
menu for Zotero or it can be
under Add-Ins.

In the end you need to find this menu.


In order to add a citation in Word, you first
need to have that citation in your library.
This is simple to do, if you go out to the
library or Google Scholar and add it, as shown
earlier.
Click “Add/Edit Citation”.
MAKE SURE:
That you are in
Journal of
Ecology style.
And click “OK”.

You will get this red box. You can type dates,
parts of author’s names or parts of titles here
to find your required citation

After that you can add one author or many.
Then hit “Enter”.


Your document will then have citations in it in
exactly the right format.
Note that Zotero does not add spaces before
the citation, you MUST do that.


After you have all of your citations in the
paper, insert a page break.
Add the words Literature Cited and click this
button. It says “Insert Bibliography”.


A perfectly formatted Literature Cited section
will appear.
You MUST check it to be sure everything is
right, as Zotero sometimes makes mistakes.
Changes in fishery preferences are often driven by economic
forces, and the value of a species will determine the
investment that fishermen are willing to make in order to
catch it, and thus how heavily it is fished at low
abundance (Pinnegar et al. 2002).


This I copied this word for word from the
article and I cited it.
Is that plagiarism?
Changes in fishery preferences are often driven by economic
forces, and thus how heavily it is fished at low abundance
(Pinnegar et al. 2002).


I changed it.
What about now?
According to Pinnegar et al. (2002) the fish that are caught
are determined by the price the fishermen can get for
them. This, in turn, shows fishing effort when there is a
small population.


Now I have made it into my own words and
cited it.
Is that plagiarism?
Changes in fishery
preferences are often
driven by economic
forces, and the value of
a species will determine
the investment that
fishermen are willing to
make in order to catch
it, and thus how heavily
it is fished at low
abundance (Pinnegar et
al. 2002).
According to Pinnegar et
al. (2002) the fish that
are caught are
determined by the price
the fishermen can get for
them. This, in turn,
shows fishing effort
when there is a small
population.
Is this different enough??

Writing papers in the sciences is not like
writing an essay. Many things are different.
1. Do not use semi-colons. They make sentences
too long. Write SHORT, CONCISE sentences.
2. Do NOT use contractions (don’t).
3. Define all units BEFORE use.
o The area was measured in cubic meters (m3)
4. Define all acronyms BEFORE use.
o The Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)…
5. Watch format of scientific names.
6.
7.
8.
We do not PROVE in science, we SUGGEST.
ALWAYS use the sections required, which
means you MAY NOT call your Literature
Cited section “Bibliography”.
NEVER say “This study found…”. Cite the
study using the author’s name:
o “Jones and Cash (2011) found…”
9.
If you have a new idea, you need a new
paragraph.
10.
Leave out useless stuff:
o “Also…” or
o “The ______ of this paper was…”
11.
12.
Please make sure your subject and verb
match: They…were. It…was.
When you have more than two authors, you
use a Latin convention “et alii” in the
shortened form “et al.” This is at least 3
people and you should use a plural verb
after this type of in-text citation.
o “Smith et al. (2009) were working with…”

Be clear and concise:
o Write briefly and to the point. Say what you mean
clearly and avoid embellishment with unnecessary
words or phrases.
o Brevity is very important. Use of the active voice
alone shortens sentence length considerably.

Some things to avoid:
1. You do not have to try to impress people by using
words most people have never heard. Many
published articles are like this, and they are poor
papers on account of it.
2. Do not use colloquial speech, slang, or “childish”
words or phrases.
3. Do not use contractions:
o For example: “don’t” should be “do not” and “isn’t”
should be “is not” etc.
4. Do not use possessives:
o For example: “Earth’s resources” should be “Resources
of the Earth”.




You will take your paper and create a
persuasive poster with it.
This time you are trying to get people to fund
your project.
Make the poster beautiful, colorful and
informative.
Be ready to present that at the end of the
semester.
Dr. Crerar
BIOL/EVPP 377: Applied Ecology

Wolves first arrived in 1959 and found moose
already there (Mlot 2013).


Wildlife biologists Durward Allen and David
Mech began what is now one of the longest
running ecological studies. The study was
passed to many other people over the years.
Geneticists have joined the study in the
recent past as well.



About 20 wolves traveled to the island across
an ice bridge from Canada.
Between four and five packs formed on the
island over the years.
The wolves became very inbred over the years
and may have died out except another male
wolf made it to the island.

The researchers nicknamed him “Old grey
guy”.



This male brought some new blood to the
pack but today, the pack is once again
becoming inbred.
Many pups are born dead. In 2009 a female
died in her den after delivering a pup, but the
rest died with her. This had never been
observed before.
In 2012, there were no new pups born.


Moose on the island
demonstrated the Alee
effect as the animals
decreased in size over
the years.
However, they do not
demonstrate the
dangerous effects of
inbreeding.



Wolves have many issues with still birth as
well as problems with the eye (opaque eye).
So the Park Service wonders what to do now?
Climate change is warming the area so much
that ice bridges are unlikely in the future and
without help, the wolves will die out
completely.

Definition according to the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC):
◦ A change in the state of the climate that can be
identified (e.g., by using statistical tests) by
changes in the mean and/or the variability of its
properties and that persists for an extended period,
typically decades or longer. Climate change may be
due to natural internal processes or external
forcings, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in
the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.
http://www.greenworldrising.org/


Increased burning of fossil fuels during the
Industrial Revolution.
Respiration
C6H12O6 +6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O


Water vapor (evaporation, transpiration)
Carbon dioxide (burning fossil fuels and decay of
biomass)




Methane (anaerobic microbial metabolism)
Nitrous oxide (soil denitrifiers, burning fossil fuels)
Ozone (photochemical oxidation)
CFCs (manufactured gases)



CO2 in atmosphere can be measured in
bubbles that were frozen in polar ice.
Ice core analysis shows that CO2 has
increased exponentially since 1750.
Since 1958, direct atmospheric
measurements show a continued exponential
increase.


This is the middle prediction and assuming
business as usual response.
In the 1990-2100 time period:
1. CO2 concentration in the air will double
2. Mean surface temperature will rise 2oC and
3. Mean sea level will rise 0.5 m.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Reduce burning of fossil fuel by using
alternative fuels.
Increase forest biomass absorption of
CO2 by planting more trees.
Fertilize the growth of algae in the
ocean.
Wait and see if increased CO2 leads to
faster photosynthesis.
Reduce deforestation.
Historical record of atmospheric CO2 over the past 300 years. Data
Prior to direct observation (1958 to present) are estimated from various
techniques including analysis of air trapped in Antarctic ice sheets.

In addition to fossil
fuel emissions,
clearing of land and
changing land use
from net sinks to
neutral or net
sources of CO2 has
resulted in increased
contributions to the
atmosphere.

Since the 1850s
carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere has risen
280ppm to 360ppm.

Models analyzing the
effects of this
increase predict a
1oC – 5.8oC
temperature increase
by 2100.



The World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) and the United Nations
Environment Program (UNEP)
established the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in
1988.
Its mandate is to objectively assess
information on climate change and
ensure balanced reporting of
viewpoints and possible response
options.
The IPCC does not conduct new
research or monitor climate-related
data (it is not policy prescriptive or
policy driven).
Greater increase in north
Temperature increase in oceans
Dramatic increases are predicted – although there is a
large range of possible temperatures (1oC – 5.8oC)
2.5
1.6
1.0
0.6
Temperature Change
0.4
9.00
7.25
5.50
3.75
Precipitation Change
2.00



Theoretically loss of surrounding
ice shelves could cause the West
Antarctic Ice Sheet to slide off into
the sea.
If this happened it could cause a
8m sea level rise.
IPCC: “The likelihood of a major
sea level rise by the year 2100 due
to a collapse of the West Antarctic
ice sheet is considered low.”
• A 10m sea level rise
would flood ~25% of
the US population.
• This would cause a
major impact on
people and
infrastructures in the
Gulf and East Coast
states.
Red shows areas along the Gulf Coast and East
Coast of the United States that would be flooded by
a 10-meter rise in sea level. Population figures for
1996 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, unpublished data,
1998) indicate that a 10-meter rise in sea level would
flood ~25% of the US population.
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs2-00/
Land area of Bangladesh
that would be submerged
(dark green area of map) if
sea level rose by 1 meter.
Approximately 25% of the
country’s population lives
in areas less than 3m
above sea level, with
about 7% of the country’s
habitable land and 6
million people residing in
areas less than 1m above
sea level.


When CO2 dissolves in
the ocean it lowers
the pH, making the
ocean more acidic.
Coral reefs and
organisms whose
skeletons or shells
contain calcium
carbonate will be
affected by a pH
reduction.


Since the Industrial
Revolution, sea
surface pH levels
have dropped by
~0.1 units.
Researchers warn
that values could fall
by a further 0.5 units
by 2100 (Caldeira and Wickett
2003).

Climate change will have both
direct (increased heat stress,
asthma, and other
cardiovascular and respiratory
ailments) and indirect
(increased incidence of
communicable diseases,
escalating mortality and injury
due to increased occurrence
of natural disasters) effects on
human health.
Relationship between maximum daily temperature
and human mortality in Cairo, Egypt, during 1982.
Average annual excess weather-related mortality for the years 1993,
2020, and 2050 in various cities of the United States. Future
projections are based on changes in climate predicted by the
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GCM.



The Day After Tomorrow
made audiences in Germany
less worried about the
effects of global warming
and climate change.
In contrast, audiences in the
U.S. had their fears fuelled
by the film.
The film generally raised
awareness in the U.S. while it
contradicted European’s
expectations because of a
fixed notion of the effects of
climate change.

Wild plants and animals
◦ Possible outcomes for an individual:
 Death
 Toleration or acclimatization to new conditions
 Immigration to more suitable environment
◦ Possible outcomes for a population or species:
 Extinction
 Adaptation to new conditions
 Immigration to more suitable environment

Crop plants
◦ Much genetic variation among species and within
species in different environmental conditions (rate
and size of rise, nutrients available, water available,
etc.).
◦ Range of genetic variability is large and can expect
new varieties for the warmer climate.




1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP
Four cycles of heating and cooling.
Sometimes the temperature rose 7oC in less
than 50 yrs.
Species responses:
◦ Most species appear to have immigrated and
adapted.
◦ Few species went extinct.

Species responses:
◦ Some of the species that went extinct, and
especially the terrestrial megafauna, were driven to
extinction by human activity.
◦ Most species have rich varieties of genetic
information and are expected to adapt.

Most species migrated North and South with
the state of the climate cycle.
◦ Good evidence in tree species of movement to
North in Europe during warm periods.
◦ Pollen records indicate movement North at a rate of
100-400 meters/year.
◦ Success of pollinators and seed dispersers is
crucial.
◦ The mosaic of human farmland is great and may
slow the tree movement this time.
BIOL/EVPP 377: Applied Ecology



Increasing human population
and industrialization.
Increasing environmental
stress.
Ecological change
and evolutionary
response.

Increasing conflicts among human groups.

Human conflicts are settled by:
◦ Negotiation
◦ Economics
◦ Warfare

Ecological sciences can help predict outcomes
of various actions to help resolve conflicts.

Energy is the ability to do work.

Described by Laws of Thermodynamics
◦ 1st: Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.
◦ 2nd: In any energy transfer, some part is “lost” as
low temperature heat.

Energy flows from concentrated areas to
dispersed areas.


Organisms are able
to use energy to
maintain their
complex
organization.
The concentrated
energy source for
most biological
processes is the
Sun.
3D Sun Image

Less than 1% of the energy flowing from the
Sun strikes the Earth’s upper atmosphere.
◦ This averages 2 cal/cm2/min.



About 25% is reflected.
About 25% is absorbed and reradiated.
About 50% reaches the land or water surface
of the Earth.



Most of the absorbed energy is reradiated as
heat.
Less than 2% is absorbed by photosynthetic
pigments and used to split water molecules.
H+ ions combine with CO2 to form an energyrich molecule.

Definition of productivity:
◦ Formation of energy-rich carbon molecules by
organisms using physical forms of energy.

Is a rate function.

Units can be calories, joules, or biomass per
unit of time.

Total energy formed is gross primary
production (GPP).

Cellular respiration is used to maintain the
organism.
◦ Usually ~90% of GPP.

What is left is called net primary production
(NPP).
◦ This accumulates as added biomass or new
individuals (reproduction).
◦ This is available as food for the next trophic level.







Tropical rain forest
Temperate deciduous forest
Boreal forest
Tropical savanna
Temperate grassland
Oceans
Total Earth
~2000
~1250
~800
~750
~600
~150
~3550




7,315,747,527 (May 18,
2015 11:50)
Projected to reach 8 15 billion by 2100.
There were 1.5 billion
hectares of arable
land in 2000.
Therefore, each
hectare must feed 4
persons.
Low Input Agriculture relies on as little energy
input as possible, both in fuel and fertilizer.
Low Input System Energy Production:





Commercial fishing (1986-1995)
Migratory pastoralists (Kenya)
Shifting cultivation (Papua)
Open field, Medieval England
Fields in Southern India
0.004
0.025
1.4
5
8
High Input Agriculture use both more fuel and
more fertilizer.
High Input Systems:
◦ Cattle in England pasture
◦ Wheat in Canada
◦ Wheat in United Kingdom
5
31
106
Wild Ecosystems are those not influenced by
human activity
Wild ecosystems
200



Low input systems feed only a small
percentage of humans.
Only high input grain cultivation can
feed a significant percentage.
These monocultures are heavily
“subsidized” from external energy
sources.

Choose a crop for which a larger
proportion of growth goes into
desired product.

Growing crops should begin earlier
and persist later.

Grow a product that can form multiple
crops/year.



Increase fertilizer
application.
Increase water availability
through irrigation.
Improve control of
competing weeds, pests
and diseases.
Colorado Sorghum

4.6 byBP
no free oxygen (O2)
◦ Formation of energy-rich chemicals by anaerobic
chemosynthesis or chemical evolution.

3.2 byBP
photosynthesis evolved in
green plants

600 myBP
O2 is 1% of current

400-350 myBP
10% of current

250 myBP
100% of current

Role of incomplete respiration of energy in
O2 accumulation.
◦ Carboniferous Period 350-280 myBP
◦ Coal, natural gas, petroleum

Balance of O2 and CO2 in world system.
http://www.greenworldrising.org/#!ep2-carbon/clzn

Inputs into the atmosphere
(x 109 tons/yr)
 Cement manufacture
 Deforestation
 Burning fossil fuels

Removals from the atmosphere
 Forest expansion
 Increased vegetation biomass
 Increased diffusion into ocean
0.2
1-2
5.3 – 6
(x 109 tons/yr)
0.5
1.3
2.0


The carbon cycle is a gaseous cycle with
sedimentary components.
It is tied to energy flow in ecosystems.


It is unusual in that the atmospheric reservoir
is the smallest (atmosphere versus land
versus oceans), yet is the most important.
Oceans represent an active reservoir for
carbon and an active exchange with
atmosphere.


Short term fluctuations are tied to
photosynthesis/respiration patterns, both
daily and seasonally.
Long term changes are now tied to fossil
fuel emissions.
Pools of Carbon:

1.
Land Masses:


2.6 X 1016 tons
Dominant Inorganic Form: carbonates (MgCO3; CaCO3)
Dominant Organic Form: fossil fuels (peat; coal; oil)
Oceans:
2.7 X 1013 tons
(Which is 0.1% of the amount in land masses)
2.
 Dominant Form: Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Atmosphere:
7.0 X 1011 tons
(Which is 0.003% of the amount in land masses)
3.
 Dominant Form: Dissolved CO2; CO32+
The global nitrogen cycle is unique in that it
consists of:

1.
2.
A large well-mixed pool of N2 in the atmosphere;
A smaller quantity of nitrogen bonded to carbon,
oxygen and/or hydrogen that cycles among
plants, animals, soils, sediments, and solutions;
and
3.

Humans have extraordinarily affected the
global nitrogen cycle.
Background terrestrial fixation of nitrogen is
100 Tg per year globally.
◦ (One Teragram (Tg) = 1012 grams)


When the first microbes appeared about 3.5
billion years ago, none had the ability to fix
nitrogen.
Nitrogen was only available when nitrate
(NO3-) was formed during lightning strikes
and the small amount produced could
support only a limited amount of life.


Nitrogenase is a tetramer
protein consisting of two
identical Fe4S4 cluster and
FeMo cluster subunits.
It allows nitrogen fixation by
bacteria.

Nitrogenase uses large
amounts of ATP as an energy
source, making nitrogen
fixation an expensive
metabolic process.



The relationship between the bacteria and the
plant is highly specific.
The bacterium that invades and produces
nodules in clover will not induce nodules on
the roots of soybeans.
The legume plant family includes peas,
soybeans and most other beans.


Phosphorus (P) is found mainly in the Earth’s
crust and sediments, so it is a good example
of an element with a sedimentary (imperfect)
cycle in ecosystems.
The major biologically active form of P is as
phosphate (PO4-3).


The main reserves of phosphate are in rock,
from which elements are leached for
biological uptake.
Its movement is linked directly with the
movement of water (called the hydrologic
cycle).

This results in a
more-or-less oneway transfer of P
from land to the
oceans, where it
sinks and remains
unavailable for long
intervals as
sediments.


Due to the fact that phosphate ions are held
tightly on the surfaces of soil particles under
most pH conditions, the absorption of P from
soils is usually difficult.
Fungi associated with plant roots are able to
facilitate the acquisition of phosphate ions.


In aquatic systems, P is also usually available
in low quantities because of the low
solubilities of P compounds in water and the
loss of P to sediments.
Man has intervened in the P cycle globally to
an ever-increasing extent in a number of
different ways.
1.
2.
Mining of phosphate rock, making P
available that would otherwise be tied up in
sediments.
P-rich effluent from municipal wastewater
treatment causes unusually high levels of
photosynthetic activity in aquatic systems,
causing eutrophication, or aging of local
bodies of water.

In Virginia, tertiary
wastewater
treatment is
required to reduce
this impact.


The sulfur cycle has also been significantly
altered by man.
As fossil fuels are burned they emit great
quantities of SO2 and H2S. This leads to the
formation of sulfuric acid droplets (H2SO4).


In the United States, roughly 2/3 of all SO2
and 1/4 of all NOx come from electric power
generation that relies on burning fossil fuels,
like coal.
Acid rain occurs when these gases react in
the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and
other chemicals to form various acidic
compounds.



Rain routinely contains sulfuric as well as
carbonic and nitric acids.
Rainfall has been routinely recorded with a
pH between 3 and 4.5, 3 being the equivalent
of stomach acid!
Acid deposition is blamed for the death of
trees downwind and loss of fish species.
296




Acid rain caused acidity in 75 percent of the
acidic lakes and about 50 percent of the acidic
streams.
In the U.S., the Adirondacks and Catskill
Mountains in New York state, the midAppalachian highlands along the east coast, the
upper Midwest, and mountainous areas of the
Western United States have all been identified as
effected by acid precipitation.
Where soil-buffering capacity is poor, some lakes
now have a pH value of less than 5.
One of the most acidic lakes reported is Little
Echo Pond in Franklin, New York. Little Echo Pond
has a pH of 4.2.


Not all fish, shellfish, or the insects that they
eat can tolerate the same amount of acid.
Frogs can tolerate water that is more acidic
than trout.


The U.S. EPA has a program called the Acid
Rain Program which is estimated to be valued
at $50 billion annually, due to decreased
mortality, hospital admissions, and
emergency room visits.
Ozone impacts on human health include a
number of morbidity and mortality risks
associated with lung inflammation, including
asthma and emphysema.





Potassium – changed because of fertilizer
Magnesium – effected by concrete
manufacture
Copper – effected by mills
Zinc – vital for cellular processes
Iron – vital for blood manufacture in
humans
Water :
The Most Valuable Compound
BIOL/EVPP 377: Applied Ecology
The Water Cycle

Over 97% of water on Earth is in salty seas.
Of the remaining 3%, 2/3 is stored in glaciers, ice caps and
permafrost or lies deep underground.
Freshwater is unevenly distributed.

By continent:





the Americas have the largest amount (why?)
Oceania the least (why?)
Per capita:

Asia has the least
The Water Cycle

An adequate supply of water is about 13 gallons per
person per day.






10% for drinking
40% for sanitation and hygiene
30% for bathing
20% for cooking
In US and Canada we consume 150 gallons per person
per day.
In UK they use 20% of that.
The Water Cycle

People appropriate about 50% of the world’s available
fresh water.

The UN estimates that by 2025, 48 countries (2.8 billion
people) will face fresh water shortages.
What strategies do plants use to maintain
water balance in their tissues?

Water loss




Transpiration
Evaporation
Photosynthetic reaction
Water gain


Diffusion from soil to roots
(due to precipitation)
Absorption from the
atmosphere
stomata
Water on
Earth:
1.5 billion
km2
Oceans
contain:
1.4 billion
km2
http://www.usgs.gov
The Amazon Basin ( > 7 million km2 ).
Contains 1/5 of the world’s fresh water.
Flux Rates

Evaporation to rain: 10 days

Distance: 1,000 km

Two-thirds of this in the tropics.
Vegetation Effects on Rainfall

Evapotranspiration may influence rain:

Deforestation of temperate deciduous forest and replacement
with grass and shrubs reduces evapotranspiration by 10-40%.

This is a consequence of:





Less evaporative surface
Increased reflectance
Lower productivity
Shallower roots
Less wind turbulence
Could cutting down tropical forests
really result in less rainfall?

Deforestation of wet tropical forests and replacement with
savanna or grassland.


Models set in the Amazon predict a 25% reduction in rainfall.
Models set in Southeast Asia also predict reductions in rain, but
less than in Amazon.
Rain IN the Amazon does not stay there….
Case Study: The Sahel

In the semi-arid Sahel
region of north Africa
there have been almost
simultaneous reductions in
vegetation and in rainfall.


Which is the causative
factor and which is the
resulting effect?
Studies of lake cores
indicate a history of
extended droughts in the
1800s also.
Case Study: The Sahel
Case Study: The Sahel




No clear evidence that local North African climate
change is correlated with global climate change and
climate models conflict or even predict increased rainfall.
Most rain in the Sahel appears to come from locally
evapotranspired water.
One climate model predicts that vegetation removal or
water from the atmosphere can cause reductions in
rainfall by 34% in North Africa.
Thus, it appears that positive feedback from reduced
rainfall causes vegetation changes, which in turn cause
further decreases in rain.
Connecting the Amazon and the Sahara

Water Limitations on Agriculture

Fully 33% percent of global agrarian land, holding 20% of
world human population, is water-limited.

Often the insufficiency is seasonal.

Called the dry season.

Associated with changing location of the ITCZ or of a
monsoonal pattern.
Ways in which plants adapt to drought

Dormancy during the dry season.


Using CAM photosynthetic pathway.


e.g. bromeliads, grasses
Reducing water losses.


Plants drop leaves, shut down leaf function or spend the dry
season as seeds.
e.g. thorns, sclerophyllous leaves, thick bark, small leaves
Accessing additional water sources.

e.g. deep roots, rainwater tanks
Guanacaste, Costa Rica: Tropical Dry Forest
Animal Adaptation to Drought

Migrate to wetter areas.


Cattle in Australia, cattle-dependent nomadic tribes in
Africa, gnu (wildebeest)
Reduce water needs.

Grant’s gazelle, zebras
Grévy’s Zebra
Ways in which water can be used more
efficiently by farmers when they plant crops

In order to reduce water losses due to
evaporation.





Plastic sheeting
Drip irrigation
Precision timing of germination
Rapid plant growth
Less chaff and more grain
Glass Shielding
Drip garden
Plastic sheeting
Survival in the desert…
Ways in which water can be used more
efficiently by farmers when they plant crops

Use CAM plants instead of C3 and C4 plants.

C3 and C4 plants




Take up CO2 simultaneously with photosynthesis
Up to 70 tons biomass/ha/yr if water is available
4 kg biomass formed/ ton of water absorbed
CAM plants



Take up CO2 during the night, hold till light
18-47 tons biomass/ha/yr if water is available
6-15 kg biomass formed/ton of water absorbed
Differences: C3, C4 and CAM Plants
Characteristic
C3 Plants
C4 Plants
CAM Plants
Light-saturation point
3000 – 6000
footcandles
8000 – 10000+
footcandles
?
Optimum temperature
16o – 25o
40o – 50o
30o – 35o
CO2 compensation
30 – 70 ppm
0 – 10 ppm
0 – 4 ppm
Maximum photosynthetic
rate
15 – 35
30 – 45
3 – 13
1
4
0.02
Photorespiration
High
Low
Low
Stomata Behavior
Open day,
closed night
Open day,
closed night
Closed day, open
night
(mg CO2/dm2 leaf area/hr)
Maximum growth rate
(g/dm2/day)
Ways in which water can be used more
efficiently by farmers when they plant crops

Increase CO2 in the atmosphere.


Appears to increase efficiency of water use by reducing
stomatal opening.
Already being done, courtesy of fossil fuel use.
Can we make additional water available?

Irrigation water.

Pumped groundwater


Aquifer location, size, and depth
Negative consequences include:





Reduced groundwater flow to streams
Change in salinity in estuaries
Land subsidence
Saltwater intrusion into aquifer if coastal location
Salinization of soil surface
Principle US. Aquifers
Negative effects of reservoir construction

Reservoir construction.




River diversion to a new basin.


Reduces loss of freshwater to the sea
Increases flood control capacity
Can also be used to generate electricity
Moves rivers to new channels
Negative effects:





Loss of valuable bottomland farmland
Short service life?
Alteration of downstream conditions
Salinization of soil surface
Alters conditions in old channel downstream
Colorado River Dam
John Flannagan Dam and Reservoir:
This is a natural earthen dam.
Why would moving icebergs to arid areas
help to provide more fresh water?

Iceberg transport from polar seas.



Icebergs are 99% fresh water.
Icebergs are much larger below the waterline than above.
Negative effects:


Alter local ocean temperature and increase stratification
Salinization of soil surface
Can we make additional water available?

Saltwater irrigation.


Endless supply of water
Negative effects:



Salinization of soil surface
Few plant species tolerate salt osmotic stress
Toxicity of Na+ and Cl-
Can we make additional water available?

In the Namib desert where rain is rare but fog common, a
beetle survives by condensing water on its back until
drops roll down into the insect’s mouth. Now this
principle has been magnified onto a grand sca…
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