Please see questions for assignment related materials attached.Questions:Questions 5 assignment.docxRelated Materials:8 – Transformational Leadership.pdf9 – Authentic Leadership.pdfAuthentic Leadership Self Questionnaire.docx Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire.docx ThanksChapter 8: Transformational Leadership
Overview
 Transformational Leadership (TL) Perspective
 A Model of Transformational Leadership
 Transformational Leadership Factors
 Full Range of Leadership Model
 The Additive Effects of TL
 Other Transformational Leadership Perspectives
 How Does the Transformational Approach Work?
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership
Description
 Process – TL is a process that changes and transforms
individuals
 Influence – TL involves an exceptional form of influence
that moves followers to accomplish more than what is
usually expected
 Core elements – TL is concerned with emotions, values,
ethics, standards, and long-term goals
 Encompassing approach – TL describes a wide range
of leadership influence where followers and leaders are
bound together in the transformation process
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Leadership Defined (Burns, 1978)
TRANSACTIONAL
Focuses on the
exchanges
that occur
between leaders
and their followers
PSEUDOTRANSFORMATIONAL
TRANSFORMATIONAL
Process of
engaging with others
to create a connection that
increases
motivation and morality in
both the leader and the
follower
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Focuses on the
leader’s
own interests
rather than the
interests of his or
her followers
Types of Leadership Defined
(Burns, 1978)
– No new taxes = votes.
– Turn in assignments = grade.
– Surpass goals = promotion.
The exchange dimension is so
common that you can observe
it at all walks of life.
Focuses on the
exchanges
that occur
between leaders
and their followers
TRANSACTIONAL
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Leadership Defined
(Burns, 1978)
Leaders who are
 transforming but in a
negative way
 self-consumed,
exploitive; poweroriented, with
warped moral values
includes leaders like
 Adolph Hitler
 Saddam Hussein
Focuses on the
leader’s
own interests
rather than the
interests of his or
her followers
PSEUDOTRANSFORMATIONAL
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Pseudotransformational (Christie, Barling,
& Turner, 2011)
 Four experimental studies => model of
pseudotransformational leadership
1) Self-serving
2) Unwilling to encourage independent thought in
followers
3) Exhibits little general caring for others
4) Uses inspiration and appeal to manipulate followers
for his or her own ends
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978)
❖Leader is attentive to the needs and motives of followers
and tries to help followers reach their fullest potential.
• Mohandas Gandhi raised
the hopes and demands of
millions of his people and in
the process was changed
himself
• Ryan White raised people’s
awareness about AIDS
Process of
engaging with others
to create a connection
that increases
motivation
and morality in both the
leader and the follower
TRANSFORMATIONAL
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership & Charisma
Definition
 Charisma – A special personality characteristic that gives
a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is
reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the
person being treated as a leader (Weber, 1947)
 Charismatic Leadership Theory (House, 1976)
 Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific
charismatic effects on their followers
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Theory of Charismatic Leadership
(House, 1976)
Theory of Charismatic Leadership
(Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993)
Later Studies
 Charismatic Leadership –
 Transforms follower’s self-concepts; tries to link identity
of followers to collective identity of the organization
• Forge this link by emphasizing intrinsic rewards &
de-emphasizing extrinsic rewards
• Throughout process, leaders


Express high expectations for followers
help followers gain sense of self-confidence and selfefficacy
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Model of Transformational Leadership
(Bass, 1985)
 Expanded and refined version of work done by Burns and
House. It included
• More attention to followers’ rather than leader’s needs
• Suggested TL could apply to outcomes that were not positive
• Described transactional and transformational leadership as a
continuum
 Extended House’s work by
• Giving more attention to emotional elements & origins of charisma
• Suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for
TL
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
TL motivates followers beyond the expected by
▪ raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and
idealized goals
▪ transcending self-interest for the good of the team or organization
▪ addressing higher-level needs
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership Factors
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Full Range of
Leadership Model
Transformational Leadership Factors:
The 4 Is
 Idealized Influence
 Acting as strong role models
 High standards of moral and ethical conduct
 Making others want to follow the leader’s vision
 Inspirational Motivation
 Communicating high expectations
 Inspiring followers to commitment and engagement in shared
vision
 Using symbols & emotional appeals to focus group
members to achieve more than self-interest
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership Factors:
The 4 Is
 Intellectual Stimulation
 Stimulating followers to be creative and innovative
 Challenging their own beliefs and valuing those of leader and
organization
 Supporting followers to
 Try new approaches
 Develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues
 Individualized Consideration




Listening carefully to the needs of followers
Acting as coaches to assist followers in becoming fully actualized
Helping followers grow through personal challenges
Ex. Showing optimism helps employees become more engaged in their
work (Tims et al., 2011)
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transactional Leadership Factors
Contingent Reward
The exchange process between leaders and followers in which
effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards
Management-by-Exception
Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and
negative reinforcement
 Two forms
• Active – Watches follower closely to identify
mistakes/rule violations
• Passive – Intervenes only after standards have not been met or
problems have arisen
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Nonleadership Factor
Laissez-Faire
The Absence of Leadership
A hands-off, let-things-ride approach
 Refers to a leader who
 abdicates responsibility
 delays decisions
 gives no feedback, and
 makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Bennis & Nanus (1985)
Four Leader Strategies in Transforming
Organizations
 Clear vision of organization’s future state
 TL’s social architect of organization
 Create trust by making their position known
and standing by it
 Creatively deploy themselves through positive
self-regard
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Kouzes & Pozner (1987, 2002)
Model consists of five fundamental practices

Model the Way

Inspire a Shared Vision

Challenge the Process

Enable Others to Act

Encourage the Heart
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
How Does the Transformational
Leadership Approach Work?
 Focus of Transformational Leadership
 Strengths
 Criticisms
 Application
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership
Overall Scope
 Describes how leaders can
initiate, develop, and carry
out significant changes in
organizations
Focus of Transformational
Leaders
 TLs empower and nurture




followers
TLs stimulate change by
becoming strong role models for
followers
TLs commonly create a vision
TLs require leaders to become
social architects
TLs build trust & foster
collaboration
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Strengths
 Broadly researched. TL has been widely researched, including a large





body of qualitative research centering on prominent leaders and CEOs
in major firms.
Intuitive appeal. People are attracted to TL because it makes sense to
them.
Process focused. TL treats leadership as a process occurring between
followers and leaders.
Expansive leadership view. TL provides a broader view of leadership
that augments other leadership models.
Emphasizes followers. TL emphasizes followers’ needs, values, and
morals.
Effectiveness. Evidence supports that TL is an effective form of
leadership.
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Criticisms
 Lacks conceptual clarity
 Dimensions are not clearly delimited
 Parameters of TL overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership
 Measurement questioned
 Validity of MLQ not fully established
 Some transformational factors are not unique solely to the transformational
model
 TL treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition than a




behavior that can be taught
No causal link shown between transformational leaders and changes
in followers or organizations
TL is elitist and antidemocratic
Suffers from heroic leadership bias
Has the potential to be abused
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Application
 Provides a general way of thinking about leadership that





stresses ideals, inspiration, innovations, and individual
concerns
Can be taught to individuals at all levels of the organization
Able to positively impact a firm’s performance
May be used as a tool in recruitment, selection, promotion,
and training development
Can be used to improve team development, decisionmaking groups, quality initiatives, and reorganizations
The MLQ and Sosik and Jung (2010) guide help leaders to
target areas of leadership improvement
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Chapter 9: Authentic Leadership
Overview
 Authentic Leadership Description
 Authentic Leadership Defined
 Approaches to Authentic Leadership
 Practical
 Theoretical
 How does Authentic Leadership Theory Work?
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Authentic Leadership Description
 Authentic Leadership – focuses on whether leadership is
genuine
 Interest in Authentic Leadership
 Increasing in recent times due to social upheavals
 People longing for trustworthy leaders
 Identified earlier in transformational leadership research but not
studied separately
 Needed evidence-based research of construct
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Authentic Leadership Defined
 Intrapersonal Definition:
 Leadership based on self-concept and how self-concept relates to
actions (Shamir & Eilam, 2005)
 Relies on the life story of the leader
 Three Authentic Leadership Characteristics:
 ALs exhibit genuine leadership
 ALs lead from conviction
 ALs are originals, not copies
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Authentic Leadership Defined
 Interpersonal Definition:
 Leadership is created by leaders and followers together
(Eagly, 2005)
 It is a reciprocal process because leaders affect
followers and followers affect leaders
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Authentic Leadership Defined
 Developmental Definition:
 Leadership can be nurtured and developed over a lifetime (Avolio
& Gardner, 2005)
 Can be triggered by major life events
 Leader behavior is grounded in positive psychological qualities and
strong ethics
 Four authentic leadership components:
 Self-awareness
 Internalized moral perspective
 Balanced processing
 Relational transparency
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Practical Approaches to Authentic
Leadership
Bill George (2003, 2007)
 Leader characteristic model
 Leaders have genuine desire to serve others
 Five characteristics of authentic leaders
• Understand their purpose
• Strong values
• Trusting relationships
• Self-discipline
• Act from the heart (mission)
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Theoretical Approaches to Authentic
Leadership
Recent Research Spurred By
 Leadership summit publications (2005)
 Social upheaval and desire for leadership that serves the common
good
 Need to explore meaning of authentic leadership and create
theoretical framework
 Need to define the construct of authentic leadership
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Definition of Authentic Leadership
“A pattern that draws upon and promotes both positive
psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to
foster greater self-awareness, an internalized moral
perspective, balanced processing of information, and
relational transparency on the part of leaders working with
followers, fostering positive self-development.”
-Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Basic Model of Authentic Leadership
FOUR COMPONENTS
 Self-awareness
 Reflecting on one’s core values, identity, emotions, motives
 Being aware of and trusting one’s own feelings
 Internalized moral perspective
 Self-regulatory process using internal moral standards to guide
behavior
 Balanced processing
 Ability to analyze information objectively and explore other
people’s opinions before making a decision
 Relational transparency
 Being open and honest in presenting one’s true self to others
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Factors That Influence Authentic
Leadership
 Positive psychological capacities
 Confidence
 Hope
 Optimism
 Resilience
 Moral Reasoning Capacities
 Deciding right and wrong
 Promoting justice, greater good of the organization or community
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Factors That Influence Authentic
Leadership
Critical Life Events
– Positive or negative
 Act as a catalyst for change
 People attach insights to their life experiences
 When people tell life stories they gain clarity about who they are
 Stimulate personal growth
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
How Does Authentic Leadership Theory
Work?
 Strengths
 Criticisms
 Application
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
How Does Authentic Leadership Theory
Work?
 AL is a complex, developmental process
 The practical approaches are prescriptive:
 George (2003) – Five characteristics leaders need to
be authentic
 Theoretical approach describes what accounts for AL:
 Four attributes
 Attributes developed over lifetime, often through
critical events
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Strengths
 Fulfills society’s expressed need for trustworthy leadership.
Fills a void in an uncertain world.
 Provides broad guidelines for those who want to become
authentic leaders. Both practical and theoretical
approaches provide a map.
 Like transformational and servant leadership, AL has an
explicit moral dimension.
 Unlike traits that only some people exhibit, everyone can
learn to be more authentic.
 Can be measured using an established instrument (ALQ).
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Criticisms
 The theory is still in the formative stages, so some
concepts in the practical approaches are not fully
developed or substantiated.
 The moral component of AL is not fully explained. It’s
unclear how higher values such as justice inform
authentic leadership.
 The rationale for including positive psychological
capacities as a part of AL has not been clearly explained
by researchers.
 The link between authentic leadership and positive
organizational outcomes is unclear. It is also not clear
whether AL is sufficient to achieve organizational goals.
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Application
 People have the capacity to become authentic leaders.
It is a lifelong learning process.
 Human resource departments may be able to foster
authentic leadership behaviors in employees who move
into leadership positions.
 Leaders are always trying to do the “right” thing, to be
honest with themselves and others, and to work for the
common good.
 Leaders are shaped by critical life events that lead to
growth and greater authenticity.
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
Strongly
disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly
agree
I can list my three greatest
weaknesses
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4

5
10
My actions reflect my core values
I seek other’s opinions before
making up my own mind
I openly share my feelings with
others
I can list my three greatest strengths
I do not allow group pressure to
control me
I listen closely to the ideas of those
who disagree with me
I let others know who I truly am as
a person
I seek feedback as a as a way of
understanding who I really am
Other people know where I stand
on controversial issues
1
2
3
4
5
11
I do not emphasize my own point of
view at the expense of others
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
15
I rarely present a “false” front to
others
I accept the feelings I have about
myself
My morals guide what I do as a
leader
I listen very carefully to the ideas of
others before making decisions
1
2
3
4
5
16
I admit my mistakes to others
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
Total
Scoring
Self-awareness
4
5
1
4
Internalized Moral
Perspective
5
5
3
5
Balanced Processing
4
5
4
5
Relational Transparency
1
3
5
5
14
18
18
14
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
Strongly
disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly
agree
I can list my three greatest
weaknesses
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
10
My actions reflect my core values
I seek other’s opinions before
making up my own mind
I openly share my feelings with
others
I can list my three greatest strengths
I do not allow group pressure to
control me
I listen closely to the ideas of those
who disagree with me
I let others know who I truly am as
a person
I seek feedback as a as a way of
understanding who I really am
Other people know where I stand
on controversial issues
1
2
3
4
5
11
I do not emphasize my own point of
view at the expense of others
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
15
I rarely present a “false” front to
others
I accept the feelings I have about
myself
My morals guide what I do as a
leader
I listen very carefully to the ideas of
others before making decisions
1
2
3
4
5
16
I admit my mistakes to others
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
Total
Scoring
Self-awareness
4
5
1
4
Internalized Moral
Perspective
5
5
3
5
Balanced Processing
4
5
4
5
Relational Transparency
1
3
5
5
14
18
18
14
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
Transformational Leadership Styles
Idealized Influence
(attributes)
I go beyond self-interest for the
good of the group
Idealized Influence
(behaviors)
Inspirational
Motivation
I consider the moral and ethical
consequences of decisions
I talk optimistically about the
future
I reexamine critical assumptions
to question whether they are
appropriate
I help others to develop their
strengths
Intellectual Stimulation
Individualized
Consideration
Not at all
Once in a
while
Sometimes
Fairly often
Frequently, if
not always
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
4
Transactional Leadership Styles
Contingent Reward
I make clear what one can expect
to receive when performance
goals are achieved
0
1
2
3
4
Management by
Exception: Active
I keep track of all mistakes
0
1
2
3
4
Passive/Avoidant Leadership Styles
Management by
Exception: Passive
I wait for things to go wrong
before taking action
0
1
2
3
4
Laissez-Faire
I avoid making decisions
0
1
2
3
4
Week 5: Paper 5
WRITING ASSIGNMENT: Application:
Assignment 5 asks you to review the elements of effective and not so effective leadership presented in
Chapters 8 and 9 of the Northouse text.
Use the constructive elements from your readings to develop illustrations of what good direction and
support might look like in the context of situational theory. You can if desired contrast it to poor
direction or support. Read the information in the Northouse text with that idea in mind, thinking about
situations where you want to provide support versus situations where you want to provide direction.
Keep in mind direction relates to whether the employee has a good sense of how to do the task, but
support gets at motivation. Direction isn’t simply explaining what to do and normally there is a learning
process involved. We should not assume someone necessarily gets it completely right the first time and
may need to develop experience to build competence and we also want to build confidence.
Step 1: Before You Begin
Read Northouse Chapter 8
Read Northouse Chapter 9
Step 2:
Explore other resources, if you wish, but remember that Wikipedia and online encyclopedias and
dictionaries are not appropriate college-level sources.
Step 3: Write the Assignment 5 Essay
Part 1:
Review the material on Transformational Leadership models (Ch 8) and the material provided on
Authentic Leadership (Ch 9) in the Northouse text.
Describe in detail the primary leadership qualities identified in each model and explain how they help us
to understand leadership.
Provide a comparison and a contrast of what the key differences and similarities are between these two
approaches. (Compare Transformational Leadership to Authentic Leadership)
Part 2:
Choose one Case Study from Chapter 8 and one Case Study from Chapter 9. Respond to the questions
in the case study in narrative form and apply theory that you have learned so far in the course to the
case study.
Part 3: attached
Activity: Ask a colleague or friend to rate your management behaviors by using the MLQ and/or the
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessments. How might this feedback help you in improving your
management skills? Was anything surprising in the responses?
Use a minimum of one source. Be sure to include APA style citations within the essay and an APA style
bibliography at the end of the Assignment.
Hint: Be sure to allow plenty of time to complete Assignment 5. Look through the resources, think about
what you want to say, and organize your answer clearly and carefully. This is not an Assignment that you
can complete at the last minute since it requires you to weave together information from different
sources and about different management theories.
How to Structure Your Answer
Structure your essay in the following way:
Introduction
Overview of Transformational and Authentic Leadership Theories
Description of the primary characteristics of Transformational Leadership styles presented in the
theory (Bass approach, Kouzes and Posner approach)
Description of Authentic Leadership and the leadership styles presented in the theory (George
Approach, Walumbwa approach)
Analysis of Case Study from Chapter 8
Analysis of Case Study from Chapter 9
Case Study Activity: Discussion of your personal/professional experience with these models.
Activity: Ask a colleague or friend to rate your management behaviors by using the MLQ and/or the
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessments.
Conclusion
Citations in APA format
ASSIGNMENT 5 GRADING RUBRIC
5 points
5 points
10 points
10 points
10 points
10 points
10 points
2 points
3 points
5 points
Introduction and conclusion
College-appropriate grammar, spelling, formatting, and organization
Overview of Transformational and Authentic Leadership Theories
Description of Authentic Leadership and the leadership styles presented in
the theory (George Approach, Walumbwa approach)
Description of the primary characteristics of Transformational Leadership
styles presented in the theory (Bass approach, Kouzes and Posner
approach)
Case Study Analysis Chapter 8
Case Study Analysis Chapter 9
Activity: Discussion of personal/professional experiences with the models
Minimum of 1 resource
APA citations within the body of the Assignment
Bibliography citations in APA format (end of article)
80 points
TOTAL
10 points
Step 4: Submit Your Completed Assignment 5
Submit your completed 1000 – 1,200 word Assignment 5 in a .doc or .docx form.
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
Strongly
disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly
agree
I can list my three greatest
weaknesses
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
10
My actions reflect my core values
I seek other’s opinions before
making up my own mind
I openly share my feelings with
others
I can list my three greatest strengths
I do not allow group pressure to
control me
I listen closely to the ideas of those
who disagree with me
I let others know who I truly am as
a person
I seek feedback as a as a way of
understanding who I really am
Other people know where I stand
on controversial issues
1
2
3
4
5
11
I do not emphasize my own point of
view at the expense of others
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
15
I rarely present a “false” front to
others
I accept the feelings I have about
myself
My morals guide what I do as a
leader
I listen very carefully to the ideas of
others before making decisions
1
2
3
4
5
16
I admit my mistakes to others
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
Total
Scoring
Self-awareness
4
5
1
4
Internalized Moral
Perspective
5
5
3
5
Balanced Processing
4
5
4
5
Relational Transparency
1
3
5
5
14
18
18
14

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